Language for life B2 - Soluzioni

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Language for life
Lflb2.jpg
Autore Ben Wetz
Materia Inglese
Volume B2
Editore Oxford University Press
ISBN 9780194606912
Anno 2019
Scuola Secondaria di II grado
Classe Quarta

Pag. 6

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers: I usually cycle to school. I take the bus on Tuesdays because I have athletics practice after school. I love cycling because I can get to school really quickly and it’s cheap. Buses are slow and unreliable but good when it’s cold and rainy.

Es. 1

Cities can promote cycling with bike-sharing schemes.

Es. 2

  1. Copenhagen is safe because it’s got over 350 km of bike paths.
  2. Paris launched the first big bike-sharing scheme.
  3. Members usually pay an annual or weekly fee and they pay a small amount every time they use a bike.
  4. People use the bikes in Dublin over four million times a year.
  5. Cycling in New York is better than taking a taxi because it’s cheaper and probably faster, too.

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  • Pic A: The man is travelling by train. It’s rush hour and the train is crowded and everyone looks stressed.
  • Pic B: The man is walking to work, but the weather is terrible.
  • Pic C: The man wants to take a taxi, but he needs to run to attract the driver’s attention.
  • Pic D: This group of people are travelling by bus or coach. Unfortunately, the bus/coach has broken down and now they need to push it!
  • Pic E: This person is driving a car, but he’s having problems parking it.
  • Pic F: This man is cycling. He looks miserable because it’s raining really hard. A car is about to splash him, too.

Es. 4

The article mentions buses but it doesn’t mention coaches.

Es. 6

  1. get
  2. traffic jams
  3. rush hour
  4. fares
  5. in, on
  6. commutes
  7. commuters, get
  8. take, get on
  9. route
  10. travel Both a noun and a verb: travel, commute

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Es. 8

Rules

  1. without
  2. is

Es. 9

  1. I do know the answer, but I can’t remember it.
  2. The commute does take an hour, but I don’t mind.
  3. Oh dear, you do look tired!
  4. The bus is cheaper, but I do prefer the train!
  5. He doesn’t drive but he does ride a moped.
  6. The route does go past the park, but the bus doesn’t stop.

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Online research

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
BikeMi is a fantastic cycle-hire scheme which started in Milan in 2008. It’s really easy to use and perfect for short journeys. Of course, it’s great for the environment, too! BikeMi started off as a small company with only a few traditional bikes, but nowadays it has thousands of bikes and docking stations all over the city. They have also introduced electric bikes and JuniorBikeMi for kids too! The disadvantages are that it does rain a lot in this area, and Milan is often foggy, so that isn’t much fun. But if you wear the right clothes you should be OK. I suppose it’s more expensive to hire a bike than to use your own, but sometimes it’s really difficult to find space on the train to bring your bicycle into town, especially in rush hour - so this is a practical alternative. I think the best thing about BikeMi is that it’s a great way to keep fit and enjoy the fresh air. And remember, Milan is really flat, so there are no tough hills to climb!

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I think I’m one of the many people who agree that cities should aim to be car-free, but is it possible? The people of Hamburg, in Germany, think so. They want to be car-free by 2030. They plan to have a ‘green network’ with paths connecting all the green spaces in Hamburg. Eventually, it will cover over 40% of the city. This will allow people to move easily from one part of the city either on foot or by bike.

Pag. 8

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I got lost once when I was staying with my brother in San Francisco. We left his flat early in the morning and because I was talking so much, I didn’t notice the number of the tram we took or the name of his street. He went to work and I went into the city centre. When it was time for me to come home, I couldn’t remember anything. Luckily, I had his phone number, so I called him and we met outside his office and went home together.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

B

Es. 3

  1. F. Satellite navigation isn’t completely reliable.
  2. T
  3. T
  4. T
  5. F. Pedestrians are almost as careless as motorists.
  6. F. According to the expert, navigation systems are damaging our sense of direction and place.
  7. T
  8. F. Navigation systems can be helpful, but we should sometimes turn them off and use our mind and senses, as this will improve our navigational skills.

Es. 4

Students’ own answers.

Es. 5

  1. professional
  2. tragic
  3. muddy
  4. costly
  5. adventurous

The suffix -ly also creates adverbs.

Es. 6

  1. friendly
  2. disastrous
  3. industrial, historical
  4. icy
  5. optimistic

Students’ own answers.

Es. 7

  • scorn = noun
  • reliable = adjective
  • holidaying = verb
  • astonishment = noun
  • head = verb
  • sense = noun
  • careless = adjective
  • exert = verb
  • straight = adverb
  • everyday = adjective
  • especially = adverb

Pag. 9

Es. 8

Rules

  1. b
  2. c
  3. a
  4. d

Es. 9

  1. get around the city
  2. set off
  3. turn an app on
  4. look forward to the commute
  5. take my headphones off
  6. get on the bus
  7. find his name out
  8. carry on

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. intransitive phrasal verbs (inseparable) = come over
  2. three-word phrasal verbs (inseparable) = get on with
  3. some two-word transitive phrasal verbs (inseparable) = care for
  4. some two-word transitive phrasal verbs (separable) = think over

Pag. 10

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I think the greatest advantage of air travel is that you can be anywhere in the world within hours. My grandparents live in Singapore and it would take months to get to them if we didn’t have planes. The disadvantages are that the fares are expensiveand you usually have to wait a really long time at the airport before you actually get on the plane. There are lots of rules about what you can take on a plane. Obviously, you can’t take anything dangerous like a knife, but you also have to be careful about things like how much liquid you can carry. I guess there are so many rules because the airport is responsible for our safety.

Es. 1

  1. D, arrivals
  2. F, baggage reclaim
  3. E, check-in
  4. G, customs
  5. C, departures
  6. A, immigration
  7. B, security

Es. 2

  1. departures
  2. arrivals
  3. check-in
  4. baggage reclaim
  5. security
  6. immigration
  7. customs

Both check-in and queue appear as nouns and verbs.

Es. 3

  1. A person who works in airport security would see an image like this.
  2. A suitcase containing clothes, and MP3 player and various containers, including a tube of something, maybe make-up or suncream, a bottle of something - perhaps shampoo, and an aerosol can.
  3. Liquids and gels cause problems. Here, the aerosol may contain more than the maximum amount of liquid allowed in hand luggage. Other things that have to be less than 100 ml, are sunscreen, make-up and drinks.

Es. 4

All the questions and answers are about airport security.

Es. 5

  1. C
  2. C
  3. A
  4. A
  5. B

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 11

Es. 7

  1. b
  2. a
  3. d
  4. c

Es. 9

  1. has caught
  2. are using
  3. has been kite-surfing
  4. travel
  5. are having
  6. has been cycling

Es. 10

  1. C
  2. have flown
  3. C
  4. has become
  5. C
  6. are demanding
  7. C

Es. 11

Rules

  1. never
  2. already
  3. just
  4. yet
  5. still
  6. for
  7. since

Es. 12

  1. just
  2. for
  3. yet
  4. still
  5. already
  6. since
  7. never

Es. 13

  1. What’s the longest distance you’ve ever travelled?
  2. Have you been doing anything interesting recently?
  3. How long have you lived in your house?
  4. How do you prefer to travel on long journeys?
  5. What’s the worst experience you’ve ever had with public transport?

Responses are students’ own answers.

Es. 14

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. I’ve never travelled by plane.
  2. I’ve just seen my best friend.
  3. I still haven’t finished my homework today.
  4. I haven’t seen La La Land yet.
  5. I’ve been riding a bike since I was four.

Pag. 12

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
The price of a flight depends on the destination, whether it’s direct or not, the departure date and the departure time.

Es. 2

They’re planning to go to Rome.

Es. 4

Students’ own answers.

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  • A Which train do you think we should get, Giovanni?
  • B Um, what are our options?
  • A Well, there’s a direct train, but it costs €80.
  • B Is that for a single or a return ticket?
  • A That’s for a single ticket.
  • B Hmmm. That’s a bit out of our price range.
  • A There’s a cheaper one, but it doesn’t go direct to Milano.
  • B Ahh. Where do we have to change trains? A It connects in Rome.
  • B And how long do we have to wait?
  • A The connection is an hour later.
  • B Well, that gives us plenty of time if we can’t find the connection.
  • A Great! Shall we book, then?
  • B Good idea. Um, I’d like an aisle seat, if that’s OK.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 13

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Flight arrivals may be late because poor visibility or airport congestion prevents the plane from landing. Airlines sometimes cancel flights because of strikes, bad weather and security issues.

Es. 2

Beth is a good problem-solver because she thinks logically about the problem.

Es. 3

✔️ 2, 4, 6, 7, 8

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I want to be a doctor, but I need really high marks to get into university. I don’t know if I’ll get them, but I’m going to give it a shot. (Technique: Focus on the solution, not the problem.)

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 14

Es. 1

All three speakers cook.

Es. 2

  1. Matt likes cooking the most.
  2. Jan likes cooking the least.
  3. Matt cooks because he likes it and he wants to be a chef. He sometimes cooks for his family.
  4. Jan cooks because her mum works late on Wednesdays.
  5. Tyler cooks because he’s vegetarian and he needs to prepare different dishes when his family prepares meat-based dishes.

Es. 3

  1. a colander
  2. A cutting board
  3. a teaspoon, A tablespoon
  4. a rolling pin
  5. An oven dish
  6. a saucepan, A frying pan

Students’ own answers. Possible answers for other utensils: whisk, knife, bread knife, wok, pizza cutter, wooden spoon, etc.

Es. 4

  1. Mix
  2. rolling pin
  3. bake
  4. Slice
  5. cutting board
  6. fry
  7. frying pan
  8. Boil
  9. strain
  10. colander
  11. Heat
  12. oven dish
  13. roast
  14. chop
  15. Measure
  16. saucepan

Students’ own answers.

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Es. 7

Rules

  1. an infinitive
  2. for + -ing form

Es. 8

  1. to keep, fridge
  2. to bake, oven
  3. for chopping, knife
  4. for checking, thermometer
  5. to heat, microwave oven
  6. for measuring, measuring jug

Es. 9

Students’ own answers.

Online research

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I love making elderflower cordial. My aunt first showed me how to make it when I was about eight. There are loads of elderflower plants in this part of the country. They often grow wild along footpaths in fields. You can recognise them really easily because they have lots of tiny white flowers that grow together to make large ‘white umbrellas’ on the plant. On a very sunny morning in summer when all the flowers are white, cut the ‘umbrellas’ - you don’t need the leaves as they are bitter, so leave anything green. Take as much as you can because you will need a lot to make one bottle of elderflower cordial. At home, pick off all the small flowers and place them in a large bowl. In a saucepan, add some sugar and lemon juice. Pour some boiling water over the ingredients and stir. Then, pour the mixture over the flowers. Once you have mixed everything, leave it for 24 hours. Finally, pour everything through a fine sieve into a measuring jug or bottle. After that, all you have to do is pour some of the cordial into a glass, add some water and a slice of lemon. Delicious!

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
My favourite dish is fruit sorbet. It’s really easy to make and you can find the main ingredients when you are walking in the countryside at the end of summer! Put water, sugar and lemon juice into a pan. Heat the mixture. In a food processor, mix any berries you like until they are smooth. I love using raspberries, strawberries or blueberries. Put all the ingredients into a large plastic dish and stir. Cover the dish and put it into a freezer for two hours. Finally, take a fork and crush the ice. Serve immediately!

Pag. 16

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Salento has a lot of traditional foods that my family and friends love to eat. At home, we eat a lot of chickpeas, broccoli, olives and tomatoes, and pasta of course. When I have lots of time to cook, I make delicious traditional pasta from this region called orecchiette. It’s called that because each one looks like a very small ear! Traditionally, the recipes from this region don’t use meat but we do eat lots of fish! My favourite foreign cuisine is sushi. There’s a fantastic Japanese restaurant in our town. It’s always busy because the food is delicious and it’s a fun place to meet and eat with friends.

Es. 1

  • Feta cheese is from Greece.
  • Pasties are from Cornwall, England.
  • Ciauscolo sausage is from Marche, Italy.
  • Edamer cheese is from the Netherlands.
  • Cava is from Spain.
  • Upplandskubb is from Sweden.
  • Black Forest ham is from south-western Germany.

Es. 2

  1. A
  2. B
  3. B
  4. C
  5. D

Es. 3

Students’ own answers.

Es. 4

Rules

  1. -ing
  2. -ed

Es. 5

  1. surprising
  2. depressed
  3. disgusting
  4. frightened
  5. inspiring
  6. disappointing

Pag. 17

Es. 6

Rules

  1. b
  2. a

Es. 7

  1. can
  2. -
  3. couldn’t
  4. -
  5. couldn’t
  6. can’t
  7. -
  8. can/could Students’ own answers.

Es. 8

  1. Can
  2. allow
  3. able
  4. could
  5. manage

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Dear Mr Delaney, I am writing to you about your advert in the local newspaper. I’m studying catering at college and I would be very interested in becoming part of the team at your restaurant. I have a lot of experience in working in a busy café. I worked for the last three summers at The Cupcake and I really enjoyed it. However, I would really appreciate the opportunity to work in a more formal environment…

Pag. 18

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I would prefer to work in the city. I think working in the countryside is too hard. You always have to fight against the weather. Every season is difficult: allergies in spring, heat in the summer, wind in autumn and snow in winter! Also, farmers often work by themselves and I wouldn’t like that. I’d prefer a warm office with big windows and lots of colleagues to talk to.

Es. 1

  1. D
  2. A
  3. H
  4. C
  5. E
  6. G
  7. F
  8. B

Es. 2

  1. farm
  2. land
  3. harvests
  4. floods
  5. soil
  6. droughts
  7. diseases
  8. plants
  9. farms
  10. farming
  11. grow
  12. harvest
  13. raise
  14. livestock
  15. feed
  16. plant
  17. crops
  18. processes
  19. weeds
  20. equipment
  21. pick
  22. process
  23. farmers

farm, harvest, plant and process appear as both noun and verb.

Es. 4

  1. c
  2. e
  3. a
  4. b

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 19

Es. 7

  1. using
  2. polluting
  3. to employ/employing
  4. farming
  5. to eat/eating
  6. using
  7. to grow
  8. to end
  9. to use
  10. to invest/investing

Es. 8

  1. buying, to feed
  2. picking, to walk
  3. to get, running
  4. to get up, drinking Students’ own answers.

Es. 9

  1. I love spending time with animals.
  2. I can’t stand getting up early in the morning.
  3. I’d like to learn more about nature.
  4. I care about eating good quality food.
  5. I regret not living in the country.

Responses are students’ own answers.

Es. 10

  1. Do you prefer spending/to spend time indoors or outdoors at the weekend? Why?
  2. What outdoor activities do you remember enjoying as a child? Do you like doing/to do any of these things now?
  3. What’s your favourite place in the countryside? What do you recommend doing there?
  4. Where do you dream of living one day? Why?
  5. What kind of career do you imagine having? What skills will you need to learn?
  6. Are there any jobs you want to avoid doing? Why?

Responses are students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. Are there any team sports you avoid doing?
  2. Which places do you enjoy visiting in town?
  3. Which courses would you choose to do at university?

Pag. 20

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I’m uncomfortable talking about my marks at school, so I change the subject or I hesitate.

Es. 2

They decide to go to an Asian restaurant called Bamboo because it serves vegan dishes.

Es. 4

Suggested answers:

  1. Well, …
  2. all right, …
  3. You see, …
  4. So, …
  5. Let me think…
  6. like…

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. All right… (Let’s watch this DVD.)
  2. My favourite music is… like… (postpunk and rock.)
  3. You see… (it’s really near my house.)
  4. So… What do you want to do instead?
  5. Let me think… (it must be about 50,000)
  6. Well, … (I’m going to upload my new photos.)

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 21

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers: Farmers throw away damaged food, supermarkets throw away the food they don’t sell, consumers throw away food they don’t eat.

Es. 2

They decide to eat it.

Es. 3

  1. neither
  2. Owen
  3. neither
  4. Owen
  5. neither

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 22

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

People began to vote at 18 in the UK in 1969.

Es. 2

  1. The suffragettes protested because women wanted education, jobs and the right to vote.
  2. Emmeline Pankhurst started a women’s union and encouraged women to campaign and protest.
  3. During the war Pankhurst encouraged women to get jobs to help with the war effort.
  4. The government allowed some women to vote in 1918.
  5. In 1928 men and women received the same rights, but in 1918 men could vote at 21 and only some women could vote at 30.

Es. 3

  • photo A 5
  • photo B 7
  • photo C 3
  • photo D 1

Possible answers: hold a vigil; organise a ceremony; write, print and hand out leaflets explaining the issue and calling for action; sit-in

Es. 4

  • ways to object: vote*, protest*, petition, boycott*, go on strike, rally*, march*, break the law, riot*
  • people: campaigner, crowd, activist, rioter
  • ideas or belief systems: social justice, equality, activism, civil rights, freedom of speech

"*" = both nouns and verbs

Es. 5

  1. petition
  2. go on strike
  3. break the law
  4. Boycott
  5. freedom of speech Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Rules

  1. may
  2. can’t
  3. must

Es. 7

  1. C, must
  2. D, could
  3. C, may
  4. D, might not
  5. D, could
  6. C, can’t

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Online research

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
A few years ago, 100000 people from my region took part in a peaceful march through our city. We were protesting against organised crime. Families and friends of victims who had lost their loved ones or their businesses came together. We sang songs and held up banners. At one point, all the names of people who had died from our area were read out, one by one. In the evening, we lit candles along the promenade and held a vigil. It was a very emotional day, but we weren’t just sad - the fact that so many people came together made us feel stronger and braver as a community. Soon after that protest, we started a scheme where shops and businesses could choose to put a sign in their window to show that they no longer pay protection money. This way, buyers and sellers feel united. Now, all you have to do to show how you feel about organised crime is use your spending power: support the businesses who are standing up to the criminals and buy your clothes, vegetables, computers from a shop that doesn’t pay a percentage of its profits to the Mafia. It’s a simple idea - boycott the businesses where the criminals get their money from, but so far it seems to be working.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 24

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I saw a documentary about Martin Luther King Jr. He was an incredible leader who changed the world forever. He believed that peaceful protest was the best way to bring about social change. He fought for racial equality and justice for all and was an incredibly important figure in American politics.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
It is probably for students: It looks like a chapter in a history book or it may be a reference book for students studying Law.

Es. 2

Students’ own answers.

Es. 4

  1. F. Facilities were often inferior for black Americans.
  2. T
  3. F. She was arrested because she refused to give her seat to a white passenger when the white section had become full.
  4. T
  5. F. In 1957, the US federal court ordered a white school in Little Rock, Arkansas to admit black students.
  6. T
  7. F. He received the Nobel Peace Prize for his contribution to ending segregation.
  8. T
  9. F. Discrimination still exists today.

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

  1. childhood
  2. citizenship
  3. membership
  4. brotherhood
  5. neighbourhood
  6. ownership

Possible answers for other nouns with -ship/-hood: relationship, dictatorship, parenthood, adulthood

Es. 7

Suggested answers:

  • banned: (past v) prohibited
  • moreover: (adv) In addition
  • desegregated: (past v) when segregation is stopped
  • livid: (adj) furious
  • peacefully: (adv) in a calm way
  • sympathetic: (adj) kind (Beware! False friend)
  • speech: (n) presentation
  • advocated: (past v) promoted

Pag. 25

Es. 8

Rules

  1. a
  2. b
  3. before
  4. Past perfect continuous

Es. 9

  1. had ended
  2. had been campaigning
  3. had formed
  4. began
  5. hadn’t been campaigning
  6. started
  7. increased Students’ own answers.

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Last year my parents and I took part in a peaceful protest. We joined the march in Modena but by the time it got to us it had already started over 20 miles away in a small town in the hills. The reason we all came together was to campaign for peace and human rights. A lot of people were carrying peace flags and there were also banners that asked for an end to poverty and war. We had been walking for about an hour when a group of students became frustrated with the police presence and a riot broke out.

Pag. 26

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. Closing down libraries in towns and cities takes an enormously valuable resource away from young people. Libraries offer a place for children to spend time with their carer discovering, often for the first time, the world of books. Libraries also offer students an equal right to resources and a peaceful environment to study in.
  2. Almost every day, the media reports an increase in childhood obesity rates. Sugar - ‘hidden’ in drinks, snacks and ready meals - is seen as a big threat to the health of a nation. Adverts for these products are often targeted at young people, and many claim there’s a direct link between these products and the rise in obesity and diabetes in the young.
  3. For years, young people have felt that engaging in politics was a useless activity. Teenagers felt that all politicians were the same and that none of them were interested in the issues that mattered to them. But in recent years, more and more young people have been getting interested in local and international politics and issues. There has been a slow but steady increase in the number of young people voting in local and national elections as well as in referendums.

Es. 2

Mind map can be labelled in any order with the following: council, councillor, town hall, district, mayor Ban, tax and support appear as nouns and verbs.

Es. 3

  • leadership and authority: run, power, lead
  • legislation: ban, tax, pass a law, policy
  • voting: turnout, referendum, register to vote
  • interest and participation: get involved, engage in, care about, support

Es. 4

  1. A
  2. C
  3. B
  4. B
  5. A
  6. C

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 27

Es. 6

Rules

  1. b
  2. a
  3. d
  4. c

In stories, we use the Past simple and Past perfect simple for the main events, and the Past continuous and Past perfect continuous for background description.

Es. 7

Possible answers:

  1. First we arrived, then the speech started.
  2. The speech was in progress when we arrived.
  3. The speech was finished when we arrived.
  4. Before we arrived, the mayor was busy all day with speeches.

Es. 8

  1. became
  2. hadn’t/had not been working
  3. had been
  4. was running
  5. introduced
  6. was governing
  7. elected
  8. had just passed

Students’ own answers.

Es. 9

Students’ own answers.

Es. 10

Rules

  1. Past simple
  2. Present perfect

Es. 11

  1. Have you heard
  2. did they ban
  3. ’ve gone
  4. registered
  5. ’ve read
  6. heard

Students’ own answers.

Es. 12

  1. When did you last go to a rally?
  2. Has a politician ever inspired you?
  3. Had you ever protested before you came to this school?
  4. Which political party was running the country four years ago?
  5. How long had it been governing before it lost power?

Responses are students’ own answers.

Es. 13

Students’ own answers

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Wangari Maathai was an incredible woman and an outstanding political activist. In her lifetime she fought successfully for sexual equality, social justice, the right to democracy and the protection of the environment. Maathai was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004- Africa’s first female to do so…

Pag. 28

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
People become adults when they start working, when they become independent or when they get married. In many countries, people usually become official adults at about 18.

Es. 2

Tyler thinks young people should start voting at 16.

Es. 3

  1. remember
  2. listeners

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible answers (home-schooling):

  1. I would argue that parents should be able to decide how they want to educate their children.
  2. In my defence, I’d like to note that home-schooled children tend to do well academically.
  3. The counterargument is that at home students don’t get a chance to socialise.
  4. It’s debatable whether or not the experience has a psychological effect on them.
  5. I’d like to draw your attention to the case of a boy who was bullied at school.

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Es. 9

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 29

Es. 1

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

✔️ 4, 5

Es. 3

  1. F. Leah thinks he’s a really nice person.
  2. T
  3. F. David reacted badly because Leah pushed him out of the way, so she could use the cash desk first.
  4. F. Leah went to a café.
  5. T
  6. T

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Parents often limit the freedom of their teenage kids without remembering how it feels for a teen. If they explain their reasons more clearly, this helps to reduce the conflict.

Es. 7

Students’ own answers

Pag. 30

Es. 1

  1. Have you ever been
  2. love
  3. feels
  4. have been taking
  5. have caught
  6. goes
  7. ’s studying
  8. ’s only been
  9. have already improved
  10. have just moved
  11. are looking/look
  12. ’ve seen
  13. haven’t climbed
  14. want

Es. 2

  1. The Eurostar does sound good.
  2. We’re looking for a/the bus stop right now.
  3. Marta left her phone behind yesterday.
  4. People usually get around the city on foot.
  5. I do hate traffic jams.
  6. My parents always set off at/before 7.
  7. a.m.
  8. They did enjoy the trip last week.
  9. Turn the lights on, please.

Es. 3

  1. to save
  2. flying
  3. Can/Could
  4. to read/reading
  5. eating
  6. managed to
  7. to help
  8. for finding
  9. to meet
  10. won’t be able to
  11. chatting
  12. May/Could

Es. 4

  1. failed
  2. ’d been learning
  3. can’t
  4. found
  5. had ended
  6. must
  7. could
  8. was standing
  9. went

Es. 5

  1. did you get
  2. ’re looking
  3. must
  4. have been
  5. ’ve been studying
  6. ’ve taken
  7. haven’t done
  8. choosing
  9. passed
  10. manage to
  11. telling
  12. met
  13. ’s been driving
  14. to be
  15. were watching
  16. appeared
  17. couldn’t
  18. hadn’t told
  19. could
  20. looking
  21. be able
  22. Have you and Grandma arranged/Are you and Grandmaarranging
  23. do
  24. haven’t seen
  25. to write

Es. 6

  1. mix
  2. bake
  3. boycott
  4. policy
  5. support
  6. tax
  7. farmer
  8. farm
  9. raise
  10. farming
  11. pack
  12. travel
  13. trip
  14. campaigners

Es. 7

  1. strike
  2. crowd
  3. commute
  4. livestock
  5. protest
  6. queue
  7. feed
  8. take of

Es. 8

  1. to
  2. get/take
  3. get on/board
  4. frying
  5. grow
  6. law
  7. about
  8. journey/trip

Es. 9

  1. How many times have you taken a bus this week?
  2. What do people use a colander for?
  3. When did you last sign a petition?
  4. What do farmers usually do at harvest?
  5. When will you be able to register to vote?
  6. Could you imagine running the country?

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Es. 11

Every summer the councillors of the village organise a festivaloutside the town hall to get people involved in the community.They’ve been doing it for about thirty years.We look forward to it all year and there’s a great turnout. A lotof/Lots of people come from the city by car, so there are alwaystraffic jams.The local farmers donate their vegetables and eggs, and thecrowd collaborates to chop and mix the ingredients for a giantomelette. There’s a special five-metre frying pan for cookingthe omelette. It’s the biggest frying pan I’ve ever seen!I went to the festival every year when I lived in the village, butwhen I left, I stopped going because I wasn’t able to make thelong trip.I do miss it!

Es. 12

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 32

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

No, they don’t. Ashley gets bored at home and doesn’t feel freeto be herself, and Josh has recently moved to a new town.

Es. 2

  1. Ashley likes having her own room.
  2. Ashley doesn’t like depending on her parents/publictransport to go to town.
  3. Josh has lived in his house for almost a year.
  4. Josh had lots of friends nearby and his grandparents livedupstairs.
  5. Josh’s new house has got a garage and a garden.

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answer:
Photo A shows modern buildings in a city. I think they’ve gotbalconies, so they’re probably flats. I think it could be a niceplace to live. Photo B shows a desert with big tents. I see awoman and some children who probably live there. It looks hotand dusty, not an easy place to live.

Es. 4

  • A the Olympic village in Rio, Brazil
  • B a refugee camp in Kenya

Es. 5

  1. household
  2. surroundings
  3. guests
  4. accommodation
  5. shelter
  6. roof
  7. homeland
  8. settle
  9. belongings
  10. stuff
  11. foreigner
  12. homesick
  13. welcome
  14. backgrounds
  15. Strangers

The word welcome appears as both noun and verb.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Es. 7

Rules

  1. would
  2. used to
  3. Past simple

Es. 8

  1. BOTH
  2. used to
  3. BOTH
  4. wanted
  5. gave
  6. BOTH

Es. 9

Students’ own answers.

Online research

Students’ own answers. Possible answer:I have chosen to talk about a refugee camp in Munich,Germany. The issue of refugees seeking asylum in Europereached a crisis point in 2016. Over 1 million refugees arrived inGermany in 2015.The Bayernkaserne refugee centre was set up to provide asafe, welcoming place of shelter and support for over 70,000refugees and asylum seekers who chose the city of Munich astheir next home. Refugees in the camp include men, women and children. Some are trying to escape the dangers of war and are seeking political asylum but others are also here because they have personally experienced violence at home and feel that they and their children are vulnerable and at risk. In addition to offering everyone a safe place to sleep, each refugee in Bayernkaserne refugee centre is given food, clothing and is seen by a doctor for an initial check-up. German language courses are also available as well as educational support, advisors and translators - all so that refugees can take their first steps towards settling down in their new city of residence. There are also sports facilities and a family house for women and children.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
A lot has changed in the last five years! We moved house last year. In our old flat, I used to have a small bedroom but now I have a really big room with my own bathroom - I didn’t use to have one before and it’s great! Also, my baby brother was born just three years ago. What a shock! Before then, I would always play by myself. My life has been completely different since he arrived but I wouldn’t change anything.

Pag. 34

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I think extremely cold weather is worse. At least with hot weather, you can find shade and there are certain times of the day when you can escape the heat. Cold weather is cold from the moment you wake up until you get back into bed. I think crime and pollution can make a place difficult to live in, too.

Es. 1

  • A, James - Yakutsk, Russia
  • B, Phoebe - Death Valley, California
  • C, Nathan - Mawsynram, India
  • D, Pria - Tristan da Cunha, Atlantic Ocean

Es. 2

  1. C
  2. B
  3. C
  4. A
  5. D
  6. A, B
  7. D

Es. 3

Students’ own answers.

Es. 4

Rules

  1. -ever
  2. any-
  3. whatever
  4. wherever
  5. any time
  6. anyone
  7. whenever

Es. 5

  1. anywhere
  2. wherever
  3. anyone/anybody
  4. whoever
  5. any time
  6. whenever
  7. anything
  8. whatever

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 35

Es. 6

Rules

  1. be
  2. get

Es. 7

  1. B, ‘ll get used to
  2. C, are used to
  3. A, ‘m getting used to
  4. D, got used to
  5. C, was used to
  6. A, ‘m not used to/I haven’t got used to

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Last summer I went to Malta for two months. I went because I wanted to improve my English and there are loads of great language schools there. The island seemed really familiar, the sea and beaches reminded me of home. The food was also really similar to what I’ve always been used to at home and it didn’t take me any time to feel comfortable when I was out and about. The only thing I found really difficult to get used to was my accommodation, …

Pag. 36

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I love athletics. It’s my passion in life and it has been since I was really young. It might sound strange but I’m happiest when I’m by myself, practising at the track. When I’m running I don’t have any worries - I don’t think about anything and that feels great! I don’t think everyone feels the same way I do. We all have different interests and different ways of feeling happy. Some people are introverts and enjoy being by themselves, other people are energised by being in a room full of friends. We’re all different.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

F - surroundings

Es. 3

Suggested answers:

  1. B/C/G
  2. G
  3. G/B
  4. C
  5. C
  6. A
  7. A
  8. D
  9. G
  10. B
  11. B
  12. D/G
  13. E
  14. G
  15. G

Es. 4

Students’ own answers.

Es. 5

  1. Denmark
  2. Wealth
  3. Giving
  4. 84
  5. big city populations/big cities
  6. 2 to 3
  7. enthusiastic

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 37

Es. 7

Rules

  1. essential
  2. non-essential
  3. object

Es. 8

  1. We use who/that for people, where for places, which/that for things, when for times and whose for possession.
  2. A relative pronoun isn’t necessary when it refers to the object of a defining relative clause.
  3. We put prepositions at the end of the relative clause.
  4. We use commas before and after non-defining relative clauses.

Es. 9

  1. which/that
  2. where
  3. whose
  4. when
  5. who/that
  6. N
  7. which/that
  8. who/whom

Students’ own answers.

Es. 10

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
A singer who I really admire is Taylor Swift. In winter, when it’s cold, I like sitting in front of a fire.

Es. 11

Rules

  1. who/that
  2. are
  3. which/that
  4. is
  5. be
  6. Present simple

Es. 12

  1. People living in big cities can be happy, too.
  2. Citizens living with corruption aren’t free.
  3. The countries studied weren’t all rich.
  4. People looking for work don’t enjoy their free time.
  5. Wealth invested in learning is never lost.

Students’ own answers.

Es. 13

  1. We live in a flat which is/that’s twenty years old.
  2. We’ve got a cherry tree growing in the garden.
  3. The people living upstairs are my cousins.
  4. In my class there’s a girl born in Norway.
  5. I sleep on a big bed made of pine wood.

Es. 14

  1. People who smile more actually feel happier.
  2. Get outdoors even on days when it’s cold.
  3. Speak to someone you care about every day.
  4. Volunteers, whose actions help others, feel more positive.
  5. Anyone feeling depressed should avoid shopping!

Responses are students’ own answers.

Es. 15

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
People who keep in touch with friends and family feel happier. Make time every week for an activity you enjoy. Stay away from people who make you feel negative about your own life.

Pag. 38

Es. 1

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

They decide to go to walk to the River Thames.

Es. 4

  1. contradicts
  2. confirms
  3. contradicts
  4. confirms
  5. contradicts
  6. contradicts

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
There are four Twilight books. Actually, there are five.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  • A This hotel is lovely! I’d love to stay here.
  • B Well, it hasn’t always been so nice! In fact, it used to be a military fortress.
  • A Really? It seems very luxurious now.
  • B Indeed it is. Today lots of people want to stay here. Mind you, few people can afford to have a holiday in a castle!
  • A I can see that. After all, the views are fabulous.
  • B Precisely. It’s hard to believe, but it used to be very cold and humid.
  • A I suppose it changed when they put in electricity.
  • B Actually, it changed much later, when it became a hotel.
  • A Really? I’d love to see more. Why don’t we go for a coffee?
  • B We could go to the hotel coffee bar.
  • A Isn’t that too expensive?
  • B On the contrary, it’s relatively cheap.
  • A What are you waiting for? Let’s go!

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 39

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
It might be difficult to get used to the country, the culture, the language or the food.

Es. 2

He found it hard to get used to living on his own, speaking English, the food and university lectures.

Es. 3

  1. -
  2. ️✔

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I changed schools two years ago. At first, I was lonely because I didn’t have any friends at this school. Then I was proactive and I started to talk to people. Now I’ve got lots of friends here.

Es. 7

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
My brother has got a job in a different city, so he’s leaving home. I know that nothing lasts forever, but I’m going to miss him. But I’m going to be proactive and call him or message him regularly. I’m going to count on myself instead of waiting for him to contact me.

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 40

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I think my village will have a lot more homes but fewer shops on the high street. People will mainly shop online or drive out to big supermarkets for their food and clothes. People will only meet neighbours when they go to school or the local café. I think this will happen because online retail will make it difficult for smaller supermarkets, furniture retailers and clothes shops to compete. People will buy online and have everything delivered to their door.

Es. 1

The USA built it to record the entry of immigrants to the country.

Es. 2

  1. Less than two thirds of New York City’s inhabitants were born in the USA.
  2. When British forces invaded the city, they changed its name from New Amsterdam to New York.
  3. They go to visit the immigration museum.
  4. About a third of the immigrants stayed in the New York area, and the rest went to other areas of the USA.
  5. Ellis Island closed because a law in 1924 reduced the number of immigrants arriving in the USA.

Es. 3

  1. B
  2. E
  3. C
  4. D
  5. A

Es. 4

  • 1-7 in any order: increase, rise, double, soar, growth, upward, boom
  • 8-11 in any order: shrink, decrease, drop, downward
  • 12-13 in any order: peak, reach
  • 14 vary
  • 15 level off
  • 16 rate

boom, decrease, increase, peak, drop and rise noun and verb.

Es. 5

  • -12% refers to how much the European population will have shrunk by.
  • 2.01 refers to the average number of children per woman in Ireland.
  • 2⅔ refers to the world’s population increase between 1800 and 2000.
  • 10-24 refers to people aged between 10 and 24 years. 9,000,000,000 refers to the predicted world population by 2040.

Es. 6

  1. I spent two and a half times more on this laptop than on my old one.
  2. The population of my town is sixty-eight thousand, nine hundred and twelve.
  3. Prices will have risen by at least one point nine per cent by the next year.
  4. These statistics reflect the responses of eighteen-to-twentyfive-year-olds.
  5. The temperature reached minus twelve degrees during the night.

-

  1. 68,912
  2. 1.09%
  3. 18-25
  4. -12°

Es. 7

Rules

  1. perfect
  2. continuous

Es. 8

  1. will be living
  2. ’ll be using
  3. will have increased
  4. will have risen
  5. will be generating

Students’ own answers.

Correct figures from audio check:

  1. 6.3 billion
  2. 1,000
  3. 6,000,000
  4. 2.01
  5. a third

Es. 9

Students’ own answers.

Online research

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I’ve chosen to research what experts believe medicine will look like in 50 years from now. Here are my top 2 future trends:

  1. By 2030, 3D printing will have completely changed the face of surgery. Special 3D printers will be able to create organs that can be transplanted directly into sick patients. This will transform millions of people’s lives worldwide as patients will no longer have to wait for compatible donors.
  2. In the next 20 years, research institutes will be developing new technologies so that artificial limbs will no longer be uncomfortable and impractical. By the end of 2040, prosthetics will have become completely intuitive, controlled by the patient’s thoughts.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I predict Sara will be working in a charity in Chile - she loves helping people and has always wanted to live in South America. Simone will have graduated in Artificial Intelligence and will be developing robots for NASA!

Pag. 42

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
The article could be about how much information we read every day. It’s probably linked to how much we use the Internet.

Es. 2

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. Data growth
  2. Your personal data
  3. What is ‘Big Data’?
  4. Data and shopping
  5. How governments use data
  6. Using data to prevent crime
  7. Dangers with Big Data

Es. 3

  1. F
  2. A
  3. C
  4. G
  5. E
  6. D
  7. B

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

  1. four-month
  2. sixteenth-century
  3. eight-week-old
  4. two-kilometre-long
  5. digitally-recorded

Es. 7

  1. Twenty-second-century
  2. well-known
  3. two-year-old
  4. five-minute
  5. densely-populated
  6. 764-metre-high

Pag. 43

Es. 8

Rules

  1. will
  2. might
  3. be going to
  4. Present simple
  5. Present continuous For other uses, see Grammar reference p.126.

Es. 9

  1. ’s going to
  2. begins
  3. will
  4. ’re chatting
  5. won’t see Students’ own answers.

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I’m catching the last bus home tonight. It’s going to be beautiful weather on Sunday, so I’ll probably go to the beach. I’m going to meet my aunt at the station later.

Pag. 44

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
The ‘negativity bias’ means that people tend to focus more on unpleasant things than on positive news and events. This can make us fear the future and miss opportunities.

Es. 2

  • Envision: forecast, foresee, expect, guess, anticipate, look ahead, warn
  • Worry: anxiety, dread Advance: make progress, move forward, get ahead
  • Change schedule: delay, push back, bring forward
  • In the future: upcoming, coming, one day, be due to, some day dread appears as both noun and verb.

Es. 3

  1. C
  2. A
  3. B
  4. B
  5. B
  6. B
  7. D

Es. 4

Students’ own answers.

Es. 5

They're all positive predictions.

Es. 6

  1. c
  2. e
  3. f
  4. d
  5. a

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 45

Es. 8

Rules

  1. Present simple
  2. before/in case
  3. in case/before

Es. 9

  1. ’ll start/’m going to start
  2. get
  3. ’ll check/’m going to check
  4. make
  5. ‘m not going to finish/won’t finish/won’t have finished
  6. collects
  7. goes
  8. ’m still going to study/’ll still be studying
  9. ’ll enrol/’m going to enrol
  10. finish

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Es. 11

Rules

  1. b
  2. c
  3. a

Es. 12

  1. When we feel depressed, we make life worse.
  2. If you have hope, you have a future.
  3. We care the most about something when we lose it.
  4. If you want a good career, get an education.
  5. If tomorrow looks dark, make today brighter.

Students’ own answers.

Es. 13

  1. become
  2. ’ll lose
  3. ’d ban
  4. was/were
  5. built
  6. would have
  7. won’t move forward
  8. get
  9. found
  10. wouldn’t be
  11. won’t give
  12. use
  13. won’t have
  14. start
  15. didn’t have to
  16. ‘d never get

Es. 14

  1. How will your daily life be different when you’re 80?
  2. Will you buy smart glasses if they become popular?
  3. Would the world be a better place if everyone worked less?
  4. If China becomes the world’s biggest economy, how might the world change?
  5. If robots took 50% of our jobs, what do you think would happen to us?

Responses are students’ own answers.

Es. 15

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I never usually write reviews, but I was so angry when my holiday was ruined that I had to say something! I downloaded the app from a website that a friend showed me. It’s an app for…

Pag. 46

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Wednesday’s my busiest day because after school I have a guitar lesson and football practice. I use the calendar on my smartphone.

Es. 2

They agree to meet on Saturday.

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. Great! Let’s set a time.
  2. No, sorry. I’ve got something on.
  3. Perfect! Shall we pencil it in?
  4. Ok, let’s reschedule for next week, then.
  5. Don’t worry. We can confirm later.
  6. I think she’ll call it off.

Es. 5

  • A Gina, let’s set a date to study for our exam.
  • B Good idea. Are you free next week at all?
  • A Let me check my phone… I’m not doing anything on Tuesday after school.
  • B OK… let me see if I’m free … Oh! Sorry, I’ve got something on.
  • A All right… How about Sunday?
  • B I’m a bit tied up on Sunday. I’m supposed have a picnic with my family.
  • A But it’s going to rain on Sunday!
  • B So I’ve heard. In fact, I think they’ll call off the picnic.
  • A We could probably meet on Sunday, then. Shall we pencil it in?
  • B OK. If I have to go, we can reschedule for a different day.
  • A That’s fine.
  • B Let’s confirm on Saturday. A Sounds good to me.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 47

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
They don’t know anyone. They can make friends at lessons and events. They have to get used to big classes. They can sit at the front to make sure they don’t miss any information. They have to look after themselves. They can learn to cook and wash their clothes. They have to organise their own time. They can schedule everything they need to do.

Es. 2

  1. urgent
  2. not urgent
  3. important
  4. not important

Es. 3

  1. morning classes
  2. lunch
  3. class
  4. homework
  5. basketball practice
  6. dinner

Pag. 48

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Once I blamed my sister for taking some money from my purse without asking me. She denied it but I didn’t believe her. I told my parents and I even told some of her classmates. She was really upset but I felt angry and justified. Then about three months later I remembered I had actually put the money in my drawer to keep it safe but I had completely forgotten about it at the time. The moment I realised, I felt dreadful. I said sorry but I knew I had been cruel. My sister forgave me but I still feel awful about it.

Es. 1

Louise seems to regret her mistake but Jessica doesn’t.

Es. 2

  1. Louise didn’t follow the instructions for her presentation or the list of topics
  2. She learned to pay attention to instructions.
  3. Jessica went to the wrong restaurant for a job interview.
  4. There were several restaurants all together, and she was nervous.
  5. She was able to work in a different restaurant that she likes more, and she now earns more money.

Es. 3

  1. c
  2. e
  3. b
  4. a
  5. d

Students’ own answers.

Es. 4

  1. make
  2. fail
  3. failure
  4. turned
  5. passed
  6. overestimate
  7. underestimate
  8. pretend
  9. fake
  10. lie
  11. lost touch
  12. by
  13. purpose
  14. up
  15. let
  16. up
  17. by
  18. by
  19. design
  20. slip

Slip up is a verb; with a hyphen, slip-up becomes a noun.

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Rules

  1. c
  2. b
  3. a

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Online research

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Writer’s background: Kathryn Schulz, an American journalist and author Main theme of blog: Don’t regret regret! Interesting: Schulz talks about how she now feels a huge sense of relief because she was able to finally ‘make peace’ with all her regrets. I found this interesting because it was the first time I had read something from this perspective. Usually bloggers talk about the mistakes they have made and either say they feel awful about what happened or that they decided not to regret what they had done. This blog seemed like such a kind approach to facing feelings of failure and guilt. Something which I am sure we all feel from time to time. She goes on to say: everyone has regrets, it’s part of what makes us human being able to laugh at yourself even when you are in pain is healthy, embrace the regret you feel and laugh! regret can teach us that mistakes aren’t bad and can inspire us try again - with better results! I found her approach to mistakes, regret and life inspiring.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Two years ago, I heard about a charity that needed volunteers to help set up a school in Ghana. They were looking for anyone who was able to help them for six weeks during the summer holiday. I knew I would be free in July and August and I did think seriously about going. I even spoke to my parents but in the end I decided against it. I was too frightened. When I found out…

Pag. 50

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I recognise Charles Darwin: he’s famous for his theory of evolution, which changed the way we think about humans, animals and the world. I think successful scientists are like good detectives. They probably like to solve puzzles and are curious, observant, logical and persistent.

Es. 1

  1. C
  2. A
  3. D
  4. B

Es. 2

  1. A
  2. D
  3. B
  4. C
  5. C
  6. A

Es. 3

Students’ own answers.

Es. 4

Order may be inverse:

  1. antibacterial, antibiotics
  2. debug, devalue
  3. dishonest, disappear
  4. mistake, mislead
  5. nonconformity, nonsense

Possible additional words: antisocial, deflate, disused, misunderstand, non-fiction

Pag. 51

Es. 5

Rules

  1. past
  2. past
  3. past
  4. present

Es. 6

  1. would be
  2. hadn’t become
  3. had grown
  4. wouldn’t have started
  5. hadn’t got
  6. wouldn’t have created
  7. hadn’t saved
  8. wouldn’t have taught
  9. wouldn’t have worked
  10. hadn’t known
  11. hadn’t been
  12. wouldn’t have

Es. 7

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Nikola Tesla was a Serbian-American physicist, inventor and engineer. He’s perhaps less well-known than Thomas Edison, who he worked with, but his contribution to how we live today is significant. In recent years, he has become recognised as one of the most influential scientists of the 20th century. His greatest achievements include the design of alternating current electricity (AC)…

Pag. 52

Start thinking

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I’d read the first one if I wanted to be calm, the second one if I wanted to be popular, the third one if I was cynical, the fourth if I was curious and the last one if I wanted to be luckier. I think these types of books are popular because people are always trying to find solutions to their problems in life.

Es. 1

  1. B
  2. D
  3. A
  4. C

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

😊 = 1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 15, 16, 17, 18

😞 = 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 13, 14

Es. 3

  1. judged
  2. handle
  3. quit
  4. forgive
  5. own up to
  6. put things right

Students’ own answers.

Es. 4

A

Es. 5

  1. F. His lucky charm didn’t work.
  2. T
  3. T
  4. F. The lucky people noticed the message on page two.
  5. F. Unlucky people focus too much.
  6. T
  7. T
  8. F. Some lucky people might see if they could sell their story to the press.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers

Pag. 53

Es. 7

Rules

  1. b
  2. a
  3. d
  4. e
  5. c

have to and don’t have to have got a Past simple form.

Es. 8

  1. should
  2. mustn’t
  3. need
  4. don’t have to
  5. ’d better
  6. had to

Es. 9

Students’ own answers.

Es. 10

Rules

  1. now
  2. past
  3. modal verb
  4. have
  5. past participle

Es. 11

  1. may have slowed me
  2. must have had
  3. can’t have been
  4. could have run with me
  5. should have supported/could have supported
  6. I shouldn’t have

Es. 12

  1. I don’t have to learn English to be a nurse.
  2. I need to arrive on time for the test!
  3. I think I might have forgotten my gran’s birthday.
  4. I must have left my s on the beach.
  5. I could have started drama school this year, but my parents didn’t approve.

Responses are students’ own answers.

Es. 13

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
When I was thirteen, I made a big mistake. Please don’t judge me too badly! One Wednesday morning, my best friend at the time met me on the bus and said we should go to the local shopping mall instead of going to school. I should have listened to my instinct, but looking back I can see that I must have just wanted to fit in…

Pag. 54

Es. 1

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

She tells the story of when she ran into a glass door as a child and was given blood in hospital.

Es. 3

  1. asking
  2. answer

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Training for a sports event Against all odds, you might be one of the first cross the finishing line. You’ll need to train every day to meet the challenge of finishing a marathon. The to success lies in finding a running partner. You need to work towards increasing your stamina. It’s worth investing in a decent pair of shoes to avoid injury.

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Es. 9

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 55

Es. 1

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

  1. positive
  2. reward
  3. want to be like

Es. 3

  1. T
  2. T
  3. F. Eve is proud of Rob’s quick progress.
  4. T
  5. F. He thinks it makes sense.
  6. F. He’s more positive now.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Es. 7

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I want to become a doctor.

  1. Be positive: Be optimistic about exams, so I’m in a good mood. Focus on my progress.
  2. Give myself a reward: Reward myself for every exam I pass. Allow myself to watch an episode of my favourite TV series if I study every evening.
  3. Spend time with people I want to be like: Hang out with friends who want to study medicine/go to university. Arrange to meet friends to go to the library so peer pressure will force me to study.

Pag. 56

Es. 1

  1. Did he use to live here? Yes, he did.
  2. Emily lived in Oxford for two years and then she moved toLondon.
  3. correct
  4. Are you getting used to walking to school? Yes, I am.
  5. Mrs Gill, whose son plays in a band, is my teacher.

Es. 2

  1. ’ll be celebrating
  2. ’ll be
  3. ’m going to have
  4. will come
  5. ’ll tell
  6. ’m not going to do
  7. ’ll have taken/’ll take/’m taking/’ll be taking
  8. ’ll stay
  9. ’re flying/’ll be flying
  10. won’t feel
  11. takes
  12. ’re going to eat

Es. 3

  1. ’s
  2. feel
  3. gets
  4. decreases
  5. rains
  6. ’ll feel
  7. won’t want
  8. will I do
  9. happens
  10. ’ll get
  11. ’ll make/will make
  12. was/were
  13. ’d spend
  14. ’d definitely improve/would definitely improve

Es. 4

  1. had
  2. would stop
  3. had been, would have gone
  4. have bought, had remembered
  5. would be, hadn’t missed
  6. Should we
  7. must
  8. mustn’t
  9. can’t have seen

Es. 5

  1. hadn’t moved
  2. ‘d gone
  3. would
  4. to doing
  5. whose
  6. which
  7. would still be
  8. hadn’t got
  9. ’ll be flying
  10. will take/takes
  11. ’ll have landed
  12. unless
  13. could
  14. -
  15. ’d known
  16. ’d have invited
  17. when
  18. ’d better
  19. wouldn’t
  20. was/were
  21. ’d ask
  22. affects
  23. don’t get
  24. could
  25. ’d react

Es. 6

  1. foreigners
  2. settle
  3. work-life balance
  4. outlook
  5. increase
  6. rate
  7. expect
  8. anxiety
  9. lie
  10. pretend
  11. cope
  12. make the most of

Es. 7

  1. satisfaction
  2. belongings
  3. double
  4. delay
  5. underestimate
  6. foresee

Es. 8

  1. roof
  2. drop/decrease
  3. made
  4. down
  5. standard
  6. mistake/accident
  7. mess/slip
  8. life

Es. 9

  1. How would you feel if you lost touch with your best friend?
  2. Do you think you’ll settle in another country one day?
  3. What do you do when you’re in a bad mood?
  4. What are the issues (which/that) you really care about?
  5. What would you have done if bus fares had doubledlast year?
  6. Will your wealth have increased in ten years’ time?

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Es. 11

We’re used to thinking that people retire at 65, but we need toget used to the idea of pushing this moment back.The increase of life expectancy and the drop in the rate ofpopulation growth will both have an impact on our quality oflife. If people live longer but they don’t work longer, they won’tcreate enough wealth.Foreigners who settle will help to improve the balance,because they’re usually young and productive. We shouldprobably welcome immigrants, but we usually blame them fortaking accommodation and jobs.If we could anticipate demographic trends, perhaps new lawscould put things right. The only thing we can be sure of is thatwe won’t retire at 65, like people used to do.

Es. 12

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 58-59

Pag. 58

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

pulp (a kind of wood that you cut up and mix with water, and sometimes with chemicals, to create a thick liquid)

Es. 2

  1. The way we make paper determines its characteristics, cost and uses.
  2. Burneside Mills has been making paper since the mid-1700s, for almost 3
  3. years.
  4. Industrially-produced paper is cheap, useful, and every sheet is the same.
  5. The procedure is basically the same for both methods, but everything is done by hand to make handmade paper.
  6. People use handmade paper to decorate objects.

Es. 3

Fewer people work in manufacturing, and the service industry is growing. This sector is employing more new graduates and attracting young entrepreneurs.

Es. 4

design appears as both a noun and a verb.

  1. earn
  2. manufacturing
  3. warehouses
  4. employees
  5. employment
  6. firms
  7. raw materials
  8. manufacture
  9. design*
  10. faults
  11. mass-produced
  12. handmade
  13. employ
  14. employer
  15. delivery
  16. design
  17. goods
  18. entrepreneurs
  19. set up
  20. make money

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Rules

  1. one
  2. ones
  3. one

Es. 7

  1. that one
  2. a long one
  3. black ones
  4. last one
  5. a new one

Es. 8

Students’ own answers

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
What’s more important: possessions or experiences? In this essay I’m going to look at why many of us surround ourselves with possessions and the negative impact that can have on our lives. I will also look at the importance of putting time aside to experience things other than work…

Pag. 60

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers: You could read this in a leaflet, on a poster or on the Internet. Maybe the author is angry. I don’t think he/she is a professional writer or journalist.

Es. 2

  1. 1924
  2. 21
  3. 30%
  4. French
  5. 90%
  6. months
  7. billions
  8. jobs

This is a leaflet or a poster, or maybe a website.

Es. 3

  1. F. They want to decrease the life of phones.
  2. T
  3. F. The Phoebus cartel’s main interest was to make money.
  4. T
  5. F. Today’s young people are less interested in material goods.
  6. T
  7. F. People buy fewer goods in a circular economy.

Es. 4

Students’ own answers.

Es. 5

Possible definitions in brackets:

  1. shorten (make shorter)
  2. weaken (make weaker)
  3. exemplify (be an example of something)
  4. simplify (make simpler)
  5. popularise (make popular)
  6. revolutionise (cause a radical or revolutionary change)

Es. 6

  1. economise
  2. saddens
  3. modernise
  4. sweeten
  5. clarify
  6. beautify
  7. sickens

Students’ own answers

Pag. 61

Es. 7

Rules

  1. b
  2. a
  3. a

Es. 8

  1. me to buy
  2. my phone repaired
  3. us wait
  4. my photo taken
  5. someone to arrange
  6. your eyes tested
  7. somebody to carry

Es. 9

  1. How do companies get us to buy their products?
  2. Would you ever get a tattoo done?
  3. Where can I get my bike repaired?
  4. Has a friend ever have you lie for them?
  5. Have you have had your passport photo taken?

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I had my teeth cleaned and checked at the dentist’s last year. I persuaded someone to do something for me when I had just moved into my room at university. I was sharing a house with three other students (who I hadn’t met yet!). My room was nice but it only had a bed in it – nothing else. So I called up my brother and got him to drive me to a furniture store. We got back late, so he got me to buy him a pizza for dinner!

Pag. 62

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
People are buying fewer things and they are sharing their possessions with each other instead.

Es. 2

  1. C
  2. E
  3. D
  4. F
  5. B
  6. A

Es. 3

  1. loan
  2. hire
  3. fee
  4. back
  5. own
  6. hire it out
  7. swap
  8. lend
  9. borrow
  10. middleman
  11. review
  12. rating
  13. trust
  14. away
  15. pass
  16. mend
  17. fixed

Es. 4

  1. C
  2. A
  3. B
  4. A
  5. B
  6. B

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 63

Es. 6

Rules

  1. Active
  2. passive
  3. past participle
  4. by
  5. can
  6. be

Es. 7

  1. were designed
  2. had developed/were developing
  3. are using
  4. have been injured/were injured
  5. was presented
  6. will be sent
  7. are printing
  8. were set up
  9. be taught
  10. use

Students’ own answers.

Es. 8

  1. was invented by
  2. services are used by
  3. British homes will be rented
  4. is being advertised in
  5. have been written for
  6. employees should be paid fairly

Es. 9

  1. Who was the first commercial light bulb invented by?
  2. Where is Edamer cheese made?
  3. What prize was awarded to Martin Luther King, Jr. in 1964?
  4. In which city have the coldest average winter temperatures been recorded?
  5. Which actress was seen leaving free books in the London Underground?

Responses are students’ own answers.

Es. 10

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
In which city will the next Olympic Games be held? In which year was the LEGO company founded? Who was the first plane with an engine invented by?

Es. 11

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
The bar in our village has been converted into a shop with a post office. The park will be cleaned by groups of volunteers next weekend. The playground has been renovated. The train station has been closed because of today’s strike. More car parks are being built outside town.

Pag. 64

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Written instructions are confusing but you can read them slowly. A diagram is easy for some people but really difficult to understand for other people. It’s very slow to teach yourself to do something, but there’s no time pressure. A demonstration is easy with a good teacher, but it happens very quickly.

Es. 2

Sam is showing Steve how to save a document on the new system.

Es. 4

  1. d
  2. b
  3. e
  4. a
  5. c

Es. 5

  • A Now, I’m going to show you how to use WhatsApp. Watch carefully because it’s tricky. This is how you create a contact… Did you get that?
  • B Um, would you mind showing me again, please?
  • A Of course not…You do it like this because it’s the easiest and quickest way. All right?
  • B I think so.
  • A Now, why don’t you have a go?
  • B Um, I think I missed the last part…
  • A No problem. Just watch me again. Will you open it like this, please?
  • B Ah… OK. I’ll try…
  • A Hmm… No. That won’t work, I’m afraid. You need to double-click. I’ll do it again and you watch. Double-click like this! Got it?
  • B I think so…
  • A Hmm, I’m afraid it didn’t work. Let’s try to get this right. You mustn’t click too slowly. Open it like this, will you?
  • B Oh dear. I hope I get it right this time…
  • A You did it! Well done!

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 65

Es. 1

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

Transcript w 0

  1. Danny is the new editor of the school magazine.

Es. 3

  1. f
  2. f
  3. f
  4. f
  5. f

Es. 4

Suggested answers:
Get good team members. Take decisions for the team. Focus everyone on reaching a goal. Help team members to do their best. Let team members do what they enjoy.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
A teacher needs to help the whole class to succeed. A parent needs to set an example for their children. A politician needs to make everyone collaborate for the benefit of the people. For a coach, what matters most is getting the right team members. A manager needs to focus everyone on reaching a goal.

Es. 7

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Sports coach Good practice: A coach needs to get good players on board and needs to be able to decide about changing players during a match. What matters most is helping the players do their best and reaching the goal of winning matches. Bad practice: A coach shouldn’t take players out of the match if they’re enthusiastic. A coach should set an example by doing what the team members should do.

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 66

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

The speakers are talking about a homeless man who was arrested by the police.

Es. 2

  1. Joelle found out about the situation on social media. Jordan found out from a report on the radio.
  2. Joelle says that everyone was happy about the man playing his guitar outside the café, but Jordan says they weren’t. Joelle says the arrest was a complete surprise, but Jordan says the police warned the man. Joelle wonders what will happen to him, but Jordan says the social services are trying to find him a place to live.

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Anyone can be a citizen journalist. All they need is to witness an event and record it somehow (video it on their phone, write about it on social media). A traditional journalist is a professional and often agrees to a code of ethics so that their news reports are accurate.

Es. 4

Broadcast and report appear as both nouns and verbs.

  1. witnesses
  2. broadcast
  3. at the scene
  4. sources
  5. footage
  6. recorded
  7. report
  8. breaking news
  9. Reporters
  10. the press
  11. cover
  12. coverage
  13. presenters
  14. the news
  15. live
  16. edit
  17. publish
  18. side
  19. headlines
  20. captions

Es. 5

  • Bella: CJ
  • Ali: TM
  • Lily: TM
  • Finn: CJ
  • Willow: TM
  • Husan: CJ
  • Isabel: TM
  • Leyla: CJ
  • Zach: CJ

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Es. 7

Rules

  1. let
  2. make
  3. base form

Es. 8

  1. let us use
  2. made me do
  3. make me cry
  4. let her stay out
  5. lets me see/will let me see
  6. made me want

Students’ own answers.

Online research

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
There was lots of coverage about the closure of our local university by both traditional media and citizen journalists last month. Their approaches were very different. TV reporters were very composed, even when they were reporting live from outside the university. They reported the facts about government spending and cuts to education. They interviewed our local MPs, students and teachers. They asked each person the same questions and let them all answer. They didn’t comment or give their personal opinions. The citizen journalists have been very vocal – on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and YouTube. They have uploaded loads of videos, mainly of students they have interviewed. There are also a few videos of teachers explaining how they feel. The tweets, texts and videos are all very emotional and subjective. Personally, I prefer traditional journalism. I trust it more because of the code of ethics – I believe it helps protect innocent people from being prejudged. However, I do think it’s important that everyone has freedom of speech. Also, when a topic is trending on social media, it encourages traditional media to report it too, which I think is good.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
In this essay, I would like to discuss the role that the government plays in controlling the media and if that is positive or negative. I will explain, in more detail, the code of ethics the article mentioned and if media journalists should be made to follow it. I will then look at the arguments for civil rights and freedom of speech and how we can let these be part of our society but still protect our citizens…

Pag. 68

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

✔️ 2, 4, 5

Es. 2

  1. D
  2. C
  3. G
  4. E
  5. A
  6. F

Es. 4

Students’ own answers.

Es. 5

  1. argument
  2. coverage
  3. division
  4. ignorance
  5. information
  6. preference
  7. proposal
  8. solution

Possible answers:
agreement, leverage, confusion, assistance, substitution, difference, professional, revolution

Es. 6

  1. impression
  2. Advertisements
  3. Imagination
  4. tolerance
  5. refusal
  6. deception

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 69

Es. 7

Rules

  • A: also, as well as, too, what’s more
  • C: although, despite, however, in spite of, nevertheless

Answers in table in any order:

  1. in spite of, despite, as well as, although, however, nevertheless, what’s more
  2. although
  3. also
  4. despite, as well as, in spite of
  5. too
  6. however, nevertheless, what’s more

Es. 8

  1. although
  2. too
  3. What’s more,
  4. despite
  5. Nevertheless, Students’ own answers.

Es. 9

  1. I watch the news on TV. I also read it online.
  2. I follow the news. However, I stay critical.
  3. Captions are short. Nevertheless, they’re dramatic.
  4. Although I read headlines, I don’t read articles./I read headlines although I don’t read articles.
  5. As well as being expensive, newspapers alienate young people./As well as alienating young people, newspapers are expensive.

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Fashion is an important industry in Italy. It also gives work to a lot of people. However, I think people pay too much attention to fashion. Although it’s nice to have beautiful clothes, they aren’t the most important thing in life.

Pag. 70

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

Bias, prejudice, pressure, spin and trick appear as both nouns and verbs.

  1. objective
  2. pressure
  3. trick
  4. spin
  5. angle
  6. up
  7. down
  8. leave
  9. turns
  10. shapes
  11. biased
  12. unreliable
  13. prejudices
  14. on
  15. bias
  16. viewpoint
  17. made it up
  18. falls for

Es. 3

  1. 20/twenty
  2. 1926
  3. 15/fifteen times
  4. charge more for advertising
  5. bored
  6. 15/fifteen seconds
  7. lists
  8. 69, 907

Es. 4

Students’ own answers.

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 71

Es. 6

Rules

  1. say
  2. tell
  3. doesn’t change
  4. changes

Es. 7

  1. told
  2. had
  3. say
  4. is
  5. say
  6. are
  7. telling
  8. is
  9. told
  10. didn’t

Es. 8

  1. told us she was getting
  2. journalist had followed her there
  3. everyone should respect her
  4. was doing that as part
  5. would stay there until she/’d stay there until she

Students’ own answers.

Es. 9

Rules

  1. positive
  2. don’t use
  3. infinitive

Es. 10

  1. I asked Sara if/whether she could give me a hand.
  2. Sara told me to wait a minute and she’d/would help me.
  3. I told Sara not to worry because it wasn’t urgent.
  4. Sara asked me what the problem was.
  5. I asked Sarah to show me how I could upload my video footage.

Es. 11

  1. I said I’d never been interested in celebrities.
  2. She asked me if I thought the news was too depressing.
  3. He asked if the website played on prejudice.
  4. Some people say it’s impossible to trust the press.
  5. I told her I planned to start my own blog.

What the speakers said originally:

  1. I’ve never been interested in celebrities.
  2. Do you think the news is too depressing?
  3. Does the website play on prejudice?
  4. It’s impossible to trust the press.
  5. I plan to start my own blog.

Responses are students’ own answers.

Es. 12

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
My dad told me not to forget to switch all the lights off before I went out. My brother asked me if I could help him with his Physics homework. My grandmother said she would cook me my favourite meal for dinner.

Pag. 72

Es. 1

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

Josh thinks the stadium should move.

Es. 3

  1. understand
  2. punctuation

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

  1. d
  2. b
  3. e
  4. f
  5. a
  6. c

Es. 7

Students’ own answers.

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Es. 9

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 73

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
You might see them in magazines, newspapers, on the internet, on flyers or on billboards.

Es. 2

Because people may be misled into believing things which are not true.

Es. 3

  1. the message
  2. attract my attention
  3. differently from me
  4. points of view
  5. this message sent

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
News article promoting super foods:

  1. The media message is from someone who wants to sell this kind of food.
  2. This piece of media includes a representation of appetizing food and persuasive language.
  3. Some people might believe it and go out and buy the super foods.
  4. The article represents the desire for a healthy lifestyle.
  5. This message is sent to make people buy super foods.

Es. 7

Students’ own answers

Pag. 74

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

No, we can only have a limited number of relationships.

Es. 2

  1. The most important relationships for children are family members and friends.
  2. Childhood friendships can be interrupted if we change schools, or move to a new house, town or country.
  3. One third of UK teens spend over six hours online daily.
  4. According to Prof Dunbar, the size of our brain limits the number of relationships we can have.
  5. The average 11th-century village had 150 inhabitants, and the average Facebook user has got around 155 online friends.

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Living with parents as an adult: Your home is always clean and warm, and you don’t have to do any household chores at home. However, you are still treated like a child by your parents, even though you are an adult. Spending time with your parents every day can also be boring. Moving out: Living on your own gives you complete independence to do what you like. However, it’s very expensive and you need to do all your own cooking and cleaning.

Es. 4

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Es. 7

Rules

  1. so
  2. such
  3. so
  4. that

Es. 8

  1. so
  2. that
  3. such a
  4. So
  5. such
  6. so
  7. so
  8. that

Students' own answers.

Es. 9

  1. made such a mess that your family got angry?
  2. felt so happy that you cried?
  3. eaten so much food that you felt ill?
  4. slept so late that you missed an appointment?
  5. received such good advice that you’ll never forget it/you never forgot it/you’ve never forgotten it?

Responses are students’ own answers.

Online research

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Usain Bolt retired from Olympic competitions in 2016 but I think he will always be remembered as one of the best athletes of all time. Although he showed great talent in athletics from an early age, his parents and coach said that he was not strong enough to leave home. The family made him stay and told him to continue training locally. They decided that even though he was a strong athlete he wasn’t mature enough to be independent and live alone. The decision to make him stay in Jamaica and not to follow the offers of coaching and sponsorship abroad was a very important one. In an interview about his childhood and his incredible rise to success, Bolt said that he recognised this as the best decision he and his family ever made.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I love my parents but I can’t wait to leave home this September. I chose to go to a university about two hours away from home – it’s perfect, because it’s near enough for us to visit each other but too far to bump into each other in the supermarket. My parents have always been so cool about my friends and going out, but I want to be independent. When they tell me I have to tidy my room and take the dog for a walk, it can be such a pain. Next week will be so much fun – I can choose when to wake up…

Pag. 76

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

  1. D
  2. C
  3. A
  4. B

Students’ own answers.

Es. 2

  1. A
  2. C
  3. B and D (either order)
  4. C and D (either order)
  5. B
  6. A
  7. D
  8. B and C (either order)

Es. 3

Students’ own answers.

Es. 4

  1. symbolism
  2. heroism
  3. artist
  4. fantasist
  5. magician
  6. historian
  7. intensity
  8. familiarity
  9. ordinariness

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
fundamentalism, Buddhism, pianist, librarian, responsibility

Es. 5

  1. musician
  2. awareness
  3. cynicism
  4. Generosity
  5. psychologist
  6. materialism

Students’ own answers

Pag. 77

Es. 6

Rules

  1. because/as
  2. because/as
  3. due to/owing to /as a result of
  4. due to/owing to /as a result of
  5. due to/owing to /as a result of
  6. As a result,
  7. so
  8. in order
  9. so that

Es. 7

  1. of
  2. that
  3. to
  4. as/because/since
  5. For
  6. due
  7. so
  8. order

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Every time I see a painting by Matisse, my heart fills with joy! I think this is due to the fact that he uses such incredible, vibrant colours. I have seen a collection of his work in a gallery and the enormous canvases are so impressive. In order to see the whole picture, you have to stand back and let yourself dive in…

Pag. 78

Start thinking

Students’ own answers.

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Arguments can be good for you because they make you feel more in control, optimistic and less stressed.

Es. 2

  1. pay attention to
  2. pointed out
  3. raised
  4. shut up
  5. bring up
  6. talk it over
  7. loses
  8. arguing
  9. hold back
  10. keep quiet
  11. changing my mind
  12. arguments
  13. focus on
  14. puts me down
  15. shouted
  16. banged on
  17. calmed down
  18. made up
  19. get carried away
  20. stand up for

Es. 3

Students’ own answers.

Es. 4

  1. C
  2. B
  3. C
  4. C
  5. B
  6. A
  7. B

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 79

Es. 6

Rules

  1. suggest
  2. report
  3. persuade
  4. refuse
  5. apologise

Es. 7

  1. B
  2. D
  3. C
  4. A
  5. A
  6. D

Es. 8

  1. (that) it wasn’t her, it was him
  2. to forget her, because she wasn’t worth it
  3. (that) she would always be his friend
  4. that they took a break
  5. if he cried he would make things harder

Es. 9

Rules

  1. were
  2. would
  3. Past continuous

Es. 10

  1. (that) they’d have an argument
  2. if he’d ever see her again
  3. (that) he was going to break up with her
  4. they were getting married the following year
  5. we were meeting the next/following day

Es. 11

  1. I decided to send a text.
  2. I knew my life was going to change.
  3. I apologised for making a mistake.
  4. I thought I would never stop laughing.
  5. I realised that I’d changed my mind. Responses are students’ own answers.

Es. 12

Students’ own answers.

Fast finishers

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Hi Sam I’m writing to you because I have to speak to someone! I’m going crazy. Finn and I have been having such a lot of arguments since we moved here. I’ve got no one to talk to and I miss everyone! Earlier this evening, I came home from work and I got angry straight away. Finn was already in his pyjamas, so I told him that he was the worst boyfriend – I thought we were having a romantic meal in our local restaurant tonight…

Pag. 80

Es. 1

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I lend and borrow video games and sometimes money. Sometimes if you lend a friend money, he or she doesn’t pay you back.

Es. 2

Jordan agrees to buy Ashley a better tablet.

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
To tell you the truth, I think your hair looked better before. I just want to apologise. I can’t pay you back now, but I’ll give you the money tomorrow. Perhaps I can take you out for a meal to make up for forgetting your birthday. Nothing personal, but I don’t think I should give you her number. It’s kind of embarrassing, but I read the wrong page. Dad, I was wondering if you could give me a lift?

Es. 6

Students’ own answers.

Es. 7

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
We should have arranged to meet a few times a week to help the team chemistry. Nobody was willing to invest more time in the project because of the exams. We couldn’t convince anyone to take photos, so we had to research the ones we needed. It would have been better if we’d gone along with our first idea. We’d have earned the teacher’s respect if we’d done a better project.

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 81

Es. 1

  1. persuasion
  2. cooperation
  3. accountability
  4. listening skills

Es. 2

  1. cooperation
  2. persuasion
  3. listening skills
  4. accountability

Es. 3

  1. F. It was about life as a teenager
  2. years ago.
  3. T
  4. F. Becky was filming her own grandmother when she forgot to turn the sound on.
  5. T
  6. T
  7. F. There were four people in Carrie’s team including her.

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. David’s mistake made a big difference to the team chemistry.
  2. David wasn’t willing to admit his mistake with the research./ Becky was willing to admit her mistake with the video camera.
  3. Carrie convinced the grandparents to take part.
  4. At first Matt’s grandad didn’t want to go along with the project, but then he agreed.
  5. Matt earned Carrie’s/everyone’s respect for his cooperation.

Es. 6

Students’ own answers

Es. 7

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
We should have arranged to meet a few times a week to help the team chemistry. Nobody was willing to invest more time in the project because of the exams. We couldn’t convince anyone to take photos, so we had to research the ones we needed. It would have been better if we’d gone along with our first idea. We’d have earned the teacher’s respect if we’d done a better project.

Es. 8

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 82

Es. 1

  1. ones
  2. be washed
  3. have
  4. was manufactured
  5. aren’t sold
  6. your laptop serviced
  7. to take
  8. a
  9. ’re made
  10. is considered to be
  11. was stopped
  12. the
  13. get
  14. ’d been sent

Es. 2

  1. make
  2. seeing that
  3. makes
  4. What’s more
  5. too
  6. lets
  7. in spite of
  8. Nevertheless
  9. as well as
  10. let

Es. 3

  1. Tom said (that) he was going to read that book the following week.
  2. Tom told me (that) he hadn’t enjoyed the film the night before/the previous night.
  3. Tom told me to send Anna a message.
  4. Tom asked (me) where Max was.
  5. Tom asked (me) if/whether I could meet him that night.

Es. 4

  1. such a
  2. were going
  3. ’d booked
  4. in order to
  5. so
  6. to go
  7. on account of
  8. So
  9. because
  10. so
  11. as
  12. such a
  13. wasn’t
  14. due to
  15. choosing
  16. such an

Es. 5

  1. so
  2. such
  3. ’s
  4. one
  5. was
  6. Due to/Owing to
  7. were
  8. to
  9. makes
  10. too
  11. whether/if
  12. me to try
  13. let me go
  14. taking
  15. was

Es. 6

  1. reporter
  2. make up
  3. pressure
  4. entrepreneur
  5. get along
  6. pain
  7. argument
  8. talk over

Es. 7

  1. loans
  2. the press
  3. borrow
  4. employer
  5. reviews
  6. trust
  7. play down
  8. fall for
  9. earn
  10. lend

Es. 8

  1. make
  2. back
  3. in
  4. driving
  5. fix/mend
  6. down
  7. lose
  8. take

Es. 9

  1. What makes you lose your temper?
  2. How often do you have your hair cut?
  3. Have you ever borrowed money from a friend?
  4. What would you do if a stranger shouted at you?
  5. Have you read the headlines today?
  6. Will you set up a business one day?
  7. Who do you have a lot in common with?
  8. Why is it difficult to be in a relationship?

Es. 10

Students’ own answers.

Es. 11

All my friends say they want to be famous, but I think the attention from the media would drive me mad. I admit that I’d like to make a lot of money, but not so much to let reporters cover everything I do. I don’t think celebrities can complain about receiving all that attention however, because that’s part of the job. I read in a magazine about an actor who was moving to the desert because he couldn’t put up with the pressure. He said that the reporters had got carried away and they had made him break up with his wife. That’s not all – now that the press can’t report about him, they make up stories! I’ll let my friends become rich and famous, but I hope they’ll lend me money if I need it!

Es. 12

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 87

Es. 1

  1. does
  2. do
  3. do
  4. did
  5. does

Es. 2

  1. We’re looking for a place to eat.
  2. Your shoes are dirty. Take them off!
  3. Don’t throw those books away!/Don’t throw away those books!
  4. Have you left your passport behind?/Have you left behind your passport?
  5. Where do we get off the bus?

Es. 3

  1. How can I find his address out?/How can I find out his address?
  2. Does Martin look up to his father?
  3. I can’t hear the music. Turn it up!
  4. They always come up with good ideas.
  5. The coach is already here. Let’s get on it.

Es. 4

  1. My sister doesn’t like getting up early.
  2. How long does it take to get there?
  3. People create new apps all the time.
  4. Lydia goes to the cinema once a month.
  5. I don’t believe you.

Es. 5

  1. Is your brother studying; he is
  2. Are you waiting; I am
  3. Is Molly using; she isn’t
  4. Are we leaving; we aren’t
  5. Are Milly and Aisha sitting; they are
  6. Is Tom feeling; he is

Es. 7

  1. Have you been travelling a lot recently?
  2. I haven’t been talking to Max.
  3. Has it been raining all day?
  4. Has Pete been trying to lose weight?
  5. She hasn’t been living there for a long time.
  6. Have they been studying all morning?

Pag. 88

Es. 1

  1. d
  2. f
  3. a
  4. c
  5. e
  6. b

Es. 2

  1. travel
  2. fares
  3. trip
  4. journey
  5. route
  6. commute

Es. 3

  1. travel
  2. rush hour
  3. commute
  4. commuters
  5. get in
  6. travel
  7. catch/get/take/get on
  8. traffic jam

Es. 5

  1. pack
  2. check-in
  3. Flight
  4. scan
  5. immigration
  6. arrivals
  7. boarding pass

Es. 6

  1. hand luggage
  2. flight/trip/journey
  3. check in
  4. queue
  5. boarding pass
  6. security
  7. X-ray machine

Pag. 89

Es. 7

A Lucy B Ryan C Lucas D Martha

Es. 8

  1. F
  2. F
  3. T
  4. F
  5. T
  6. T
  7. F
  8. T Vocab on the web

Students’ own answers.

Pag. 90

Es. 1

  1. does
  2. did
  3. do
  4. did
  5. does

Es. 2

  1. You do look hot.
  2. It does rain a lot here.
  3. I do think fares are expensive.
  4. They do work hard.
  5. She does speak a bit of Spanish.

Es. 3

  1. People in the UK do commute long distances.
  2. Oliver does look tired every morning.
  3. I did enjoy the film last night.
  4. You do need to work hard these days.
  5. Everyday travel does cost a lot sometimes.

Es. 4

  1. a
  2. a and b
  3. a and b
  4. b

Es. 5

  1. They couldn’t get on the bus.
  2. We’re looking forward to the trip.
  3. I left my ticket behind.
  4. People get around London by bus.
  5. They never set off early.

Es. 6

  1. come up with a new place
  2. set off
  3. look forward to every trip
  4. find stuff out
  5. turn my smartphone on
  6. count on it

Es. 8

  1. Have you and Sam tried; ‘ve ever tasted
  2. has Jason had; ‘s known
  3. Have they got on; still hasn’t arrived
  4. Have you heard; ‘ve already read
  5. Have your parents bought; ‘ve had
  6. ‘s happened; ‘ve just lost

Pag. 91

Es. 11

  1. Have you ever heard
  2. see
  3. ‘s
  4. ‘s taking
  5. travels
  6. ‘s just learned
  7. has been producing
  8. hasn’t found
  9. haven’t become
  10. ‘s ever ridden

Es. 12

  1. forward
  2. never
  3. just
  4. does
  5. still
  6. in
  7. already
  8. yet
  9. behind
  10. do

Pag. 92

Es. 1

C

Es. 2

  1. F
  2. F
  3. T
  4. T
  5. F

Es. 3

  1. The tickets are expensive and it also costs a lot to travel to and from the event.
  2. They stood by the side of the road to get a free lift.
  3. Coach or train users benefit from liftsharing because it’s cheaper than their usual fares.
  4. Liftsharing is safer than hitchhiking because you find out about people before travelling with them, but you don’t when you hitchhike.
  5. Travel is easier at busy times when you liftshare because you have people to chat to when you’re stuck in a traffic jam and you don’t get bored.

Pag. 93

Es. 4

B

Es. 5

  1. her father
  2. doesn’t have
  3. no
  4. an experiment
  5. different ways
  6. fares

Es. 6

  1. Because she’s been driving round town for the last hour.
  2. He’s just been watching a video on the Internet about robotaxis.
  3. They’re using robo-taxis on routes around a business park at the moment.
  4. The robo-taxi slows down and stops when there’s a stationary car in front of it.
  5. Yes, he is, because computers don’t get bored at rush hour like taxi drivers.
  6. No, you can’t, because they need to do more tests before they start using them in the city centre.

Es. 7

  1. leisurely
  2. lucky
  3. artistic
  4. educational
  5. nervous

Pag. 94

Es. 1

c ✔️ e ✔️

Es. 2

  1. If it rains, people waiting at the bus stop get wet.
  2. There are too many people on the platform. It’s very dangerous./There are too many people on the platform, so it’s very dangerous./It’s very dangerous because there are too many people on the platform.
  3. The Underground closes at midnight and it doesn’t open again until 6 a.m.
  4. You can pay on the bus, but the driver never has any change.
  5. Passengers often miss their stop because the doors are blocked.
  6. The driver often drives past the stop when the bus is full.

Es. 3

✔️ 2, 5, 8

Es. 4

  • a Thousands of commuters use this route daily, but it has a number of failings.
  • b First of all, there is the problem of frequency, because there are only four trains during the morning rush hour./First of all, there is the problem of frequency. There are only four trains per hour during the morning rush hour.
  • c I would also like to complain about the trains themselves.
  • d Many passengers are obliged to stand, so they block the door for people trying to leave or enter the carriage./Many passengers are obliged to stand, and they block the door for people trying to leave or enter the carriage.
  • e As you can see from my comments, Line 3 is far from satisfactory.

Pag. 95

Es. 1

  1. has been travelling
  2. ‘s taken
  3. trips
  4. ‘s come
  5. travel
  6. pack
  7. hand luggage
  8. leave your passport behind
  9. do
  10. look for your flight
  11. departures
  12. find your gate number out
  13. does
  14. set off

Es. 4

My parents are planning a trip abroad in April. We’ve all come up with possible destinations, but we haven’t chosen one yet. My sister’s always wanted to visit Rome, but I’ve already been there. My father’s been talking about going to Paris, but my mother doesn’t like that idea. My brother doesn’t mind where we go. He’s just looking forward to getting on a plane.

Pag. 97

Es. 1

  1. e
  2. a
  3. b
  4. d
  5. c

Es. 2

  1. for keeping
  2. to buy
  3. to have
  4. to find
  5. for editing

Es. 3

  1. couldn’t
  2. been able to
  3. could
  4. can
  5. be able to
  6. can’t

Es. 4

  1. were able to/could
  2. could
  3. managed to
  4. was able to/could
  5. managed to

Es. 5

  1. P
  2. A
  3. P
  4. FP
  5. A
  6. P

Es. 6

  1. to look
  2. going
  3. walking
  4. to help
  5. to stay
  6. walking
  7. to take
  8. missing

Es. 7

  1. S
  2. D
  3. S
  4. D
  5. D
  6. S
  7. D
  8. D
  9. S

Pag. 98

Es. 1

  1. chop
  2. bake
  3. strain
  4. boil
  5. fry
  6. slice

Es. 2

  1. roast
  2. mix
  3. cutting board
  4. Heat
  5. teaspoon
  6. rolling pin
  7. Measure

Es. 3

  1. frying pan
  2. saucepans
  3. colander
  4. cutting board
  5. oven dish
  6. tablespoon
  7. teaspoons
  8. rolling pin

Es. 4

  1. Things on a farm: crops/equipment/livestock
  2. Farming verbs: feed/grow/raise
  3. Farming problems: disease/drought/flood

Es. 5

  1. farmers
  2. raise
  3. land
  4. harvest
  5. picking
  6. planted
  7. weeds
  8. soil
  9. crops

Es. 6

  1. Farm
  2. land
  3. farming
  4. raise
  5. livestock
  6. equipment
  7. harvest
  8. crops

Pag. 99

Es. 7

  1. C
  2. B
  3. D
  4. A

Es. 8

  1. c
  2. b
  3. a
  4. c
  5. b
  6. c
  7. a
  8. c

Pag. 100

Es. 1

  1. for
  2. for
  3. to
  4. to

Es. 2

  1. We use it to measure the temperature of meat.
  2. We use it to take corks out.
  3. We use it to open tins.
  4. It’s useful for keeping bottles of drink cold.
  5. It’s useful for mixing ingredients quickly.
  6. It’s useful for slicing vegetables thinly.

Es. 3

  1. could
  2. can
  3. able to
  4. couldn’t
  5. can’t
  6. managed to

Es. 4

  1. c
  2. a
  3. c
  4. b
  5. b
  6. a
  7. a

Es. 5

Students’ own answers.

Es. 6

  1. getting
  2. to do
  3. to set
  4. to go
  5. swimming
  6. to buy
  7. doing

Es. 7

  1. doing
  2. to go
  3. to play
  4. to make
  5. to offer
  6. spending
  7. booking
  8. to see

Es. 8

  1. I don’t mind helping Isobel with her homework.
  2. They forgot to bring their P.E. kit.
  3. I regret to tell you that the concert is cancelled.
  4. Why don’t you try pressing that button to see what happens?
  5. Emily’s stopped eating meat.

Pag. 101

Es. 9

  1. can
  2. to see
  3. to be
  4. managed
  5. for mixing
  6. To make
  7. allowed
  8. doing
  9. to cook
  10. couldn’t
  11. ‘s able
  12. training

Es. 10

  1. able
  2. Can
  3. for
  4. to
  5. remember
  6. to
  7. for
  8. Could/May
  9. allowed
  10. manage/try
  11. not
  12. to

Pag. 102

Es. 1

  1. E
  2. C
  3. A
  4. D
  5. B

Es. 2

  1. F
  2. T
  3. T
  4. F
  5. F

Es. 3

  1. They form the pastry case by hand and they don’t use a container for baking it.
  2. It guarantees that the pies come from a designated area in Leicestershire and the producers used the traditional recipe.
  3. People eat the whole pie today, but in the past they only ate the filling.
  4. The village gave its name to a cheese, but you aren’t allowed to produce it there.
  5. One producer tried to get the government to include the village of Stilton in the PDO, but it wasn’t successful.

Pag. 103

Es. 4

B

Es. 5

  1. month
  2. like
  3. unusual
  4. thinks
  5. eat at

Es. 6

  1. inspiring
  2. chef
  3. paying guests
  4. dining room
  5. restaurant

Es. 7

  1. surprised
  2. frightened
  3. disgusting
  4. exhausted
  5. depressing
  6. disappointed

Pag. 104

Es. 1

  1. Saturday
  2. ,
  3. so
  4. order
  5. then
  6. good
  7. ,
  8. or
  9. steak
  10. ,
  11. and
  12. dessert
  13. everything
  14. expensive
  15. ,
  16. but

Es. 2

  1. ,
  2. but
  3. ,
  4. or
  5. then
  6. everyone
  7. ,
  8. so
  9. ,
  10. and

Es. 3

  1. The best thing about the restaurant is the food.
  2. The only downside to the restaurant is the service.

Es. 4

  • a It’s the only place of its kind in the town, so it can get quite busy.
  • b At weekends you have to book, or you won’t get a table.
  • c There’s a wide selection of typical Indian starters on the menu; all of them are delicious!/There’s a wide selection of typical Indian starters on the menu, and all of them are delicious!
  • d The main courses are also very tasty, and they are served with the most amazing basmati rice./The main courses are also very tasty; they are served with the most amazing basmati rice.
  • e The owner is extremely friendly, but he is in no great hurry to take your order.
  • f Fortunately, the price compensates for the service; the lunchtime set menu is extremely good value./Fortunately, the price compensates for the service, and the lunchtime set menu is extremely good value.

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
The best restaurant in my town is without doubt the Artichoke Heart. It’s got a Michelin star, so it’s a bit expensive, but the food is delicious! One of the nicest things about eating in the Artichoke Heart is the atmosphere. The waiters are extremely professional and efficient; they are always ready to fill up your water glass or bring you an extra piece of bread. The decor is completely white, and there is soft, classical music playing while you eat. I’ve only been there once, but it was the most relaxing meal I have ever experienced. The chef himself is quite young; he can’t be over thirty. However, he makes the most original dishes out of ingredients that you wouldn’t normally dream of putting together. I particularly enjoyed the black pudding yoghurt we had as a starter and the curry ice cream we finished up with. I would recommend the Artichoke Heart to anyone who is looking for somewhere to celebrate a truly special occasion. You may have to pay more for your meal, but it’s a small price to pay for being made to feel like a king or a queen for a day.

Pag. 105

Es. 1

  1. going/to go
  2. to save
  3. drought
  4. flood
  5. to have
  6. getting
  7. farm
  8. farmers
  9. waking
  10. being
  11. spending
  12. livestock
  13. plants
  14. soil

Es. 2

  1. heat
  2. slice
  3. cutting board
  4. aren’t allowed to
  5. tablespoons
  6. fry
  7. aren’t able to
  8. oven dish
  9. can
  10. rolling pin
  11. Measure
  12. mix
  13. bake
  14. can

Es. 3

  • A You always make delicious potatoes, Max! Do you bake them or do you fry them?
  • B Do you want to know my recipe?
  • A Yes, please! I’d like to be able to make them at home.
  • B First I boil them in a large saucepan and I use a colander to strain them.
  • A I can do that!
  • B Then I pick some herbs and I chop them. I put the potatoes and the herbs in an oven dish with oil, and I mix them.
  • A I didn’t manage to grow any herbs this year, but I’ll buy them.
  • B You can buy special herbs for roasting potatoes. You need to roast them for about an hour.
  • A Thanks Max! I’ll try to make them as good as yours!

Es. 4

Many people avoid shopping at supermarkets and try to go to farmers’ markets instead. You can buy food directly from local farmers at these events. To get the food to the market, farmers begin picking their crops very early that morning. You can’t get fresher food than that and you’re helping to support farming in your region. That means farmers will be able to keep farming their land and raising livestock in the future.

Pag. 107

Es. 1

  1. Jason can’t know about it.
  2. It could rain tomorrow.
  3. Life must be difficult at times.
  4. Ed and Jo might get married.
  5. You may not have time to finish the test.
  6. Nurses must feel tired at the end of the day.

Es. 2

  1. hadn’t had
  2. ‘d been waiting
  3. had Rob been feeling
  4. had started
  5. Had your parents left
  6. hadn’t been concentrating

Es. 3

  1. e
  2. c
  3. b
  4. a
  5. d

Es. 4

  1. were watching
  2. had got
  3. did she do
  4. didn’t finish
  5. ‘d been swimming
  6. was

Es. 5

  1. Mo didn’t start school until he was eight.
  2. She still hasn’t finished reading the book.
  3. When did you first start learning English?
  4. Have you ever wanted to live abroad?
  5. My parents listened to that music years ago./Years ago my parents listened to that music.
  6. This is the first time we’ve been here.

Es. 6

  1. didn’t see
  2. ‘ve read
  3. haven’t lived
  4. did Martin get
  5. finished
  6. Have you spoken

Pag. 108

Es. 1

  1. f
  2. a
  3. d
  4. e
  5. b
  6. c

Es. 2

  1. activist
  2. campaigner
  3. social justice
  4. march
  5. crowd
  6. protest
  7. Civil rights
  8. equality

Es. 3

  1. vote
  2. rally/protest
  3. riot
  4. (go on) strike
  5. protest
  6. activist
  7. petition
  8. boycotted
  9. freedom of speech
  10. campaigner

Es. 4

  1. b
  2. a
  3. b
  4. a
  5. b
  6. b
  7. b
  8. a

Es. 5

  1. town hall
  2. mayor
  3. council
  4. district
  5. councillor
  6. turnout
  7. referendum
  8. policy

Es. 6

Students’ own answers

Pag. 109

Es. 7

  1. A
  2. C
  3. D
  4. B

Pag. 110

Es. 1

  1. must
  2. may not
  3. can’t
  4. may
  5. must

Es. 2

  1. could/may/might
  2. can’t
  3. could/may/might
  4. can’t
  5. must

Es. 3

  1. started
  2. broken
  3. been waiting
  4. been raining
  5. enjoyed

Es. 4

Students’ own answers.

Es. 5

  1. was travelling
  2. were chatting
  3. was
  4. stopped
  5. didn’t know
  6. had been taking
  7. ‘d dropped

Es. 7

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
When I arrived at the airport, lots of people were standing in a queue at check-in. Some people had been waiting for over an hour. Apparently, the conveyor belt had stopped working so the staff couldn’t check luggage in. I went to the back of the queue and waited.

Es. 8

  1. Have you heard
  2. ‘s moved
  3. didn’t know
  4. looked
  5. ‘s always wanted
  6. haven’t read
  7. ‘ve just returned
  8. was it
  9. did you like
  10. went
  11. thought
  12. Did you see
  13. watched
  14. haven’t finished

Es. 9

  1. Has your cousin registered; registered
  2. Have you ever got/been; got/was
  3. went; ‘ve been
  4. Have you signed; signed

Pag. 111

Es. 10

  1. Have you finished
  2. haven’t identified
  3. can’t
  4. must
  5. might not
  6. ‘ve seen
  7. may
  8. played
  9. didn’t like
  10. ‘ve helped

Es. 11

  1. went
  2. ‘d been studying
  3. entered
  4. sat
  5. hadn’t been sitting
  6. rang
  7. was
  8. was packing
  9. heard
  10. were refusing
  11. had decided
  12. didn’t agree

Pag. 112

Es. 1

  • A 5
  • B 4
  • C 3
  • D 5
  • E 1

Es. 2

  • a 5
  • b 3
  • c 8
  • d 6
  • e 2
  • f 1
  • g 7
  • h 5

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. Michael King Sr. changed his name and his son’s name to Martin Luther King to remember the religious reformer, Martin Luther.
  2. Martin Luther King Jr.’s mother taught him that he was as good as anyone else.
  3. A congressman suggested a new bill in 1968 ecause Martin Luther King Jr. had just been assassinated.
  4. Six million people signed a petition and people took part in civil rights marches in Washington.
  5. All American states have been observing MLK Day since 2000.

Pag. 113

Es. 4

✔️ 1, 2, 4, 5

Es. 5

  1. over 25 million
  2. 4
  3. 1964
  4. 9
  5. 906
  6. 2011

Es. 6

  1. The National Mall commemorates all the important people in the country’s history.
  2. It’s the first memorial to an African American in the National Mall.
  3. They passed the Civil Rights Act in the USA in 1964.
  4. The date is exactly
  5. years after Martin Luther King Jr.’s famous civil rights march.
  6. Because of Hurricane Irene.

Es. 7

  1. motherhood
  2. leadership
  3. Championship
  4. childhood
  5. adulthood
  6. friendship

Pag. 114

Es. 1

  1. As a result,
  2. In addition,
  3. However,
  4. Consequently,
  5. Moreover,

Es. 3

  • Introduction: b
  • Conclusion: a

Es. 4

All answers required but in any order:

  1. However/Nevertheless
  2. As a result/For this reason/Consequently/Therefore
  3. As a result/For this reason/Consequently/Therefore
  4. In addition/Moreover
  5. However/Nevertheless

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
A change for the better Scientists have been wondering for years how to clean the world’s oceans. Around eight million tonnes of plastic are dumped in the sea each year. Recently, a young Dutch man called Boyan Slat has created a system he believes will help solve the problem. Slat’s invention is composed of a floating barrier in the shape of the letter V. The ocean currents push the plastic towards the centre of the V where there is a tank that collects it. However, Slat is not planning on throwing the collected plastic away. Instead he is hoping to sell it for recycling. As a result, the system should eventually finance itself. Slat was only sixteen when he first came up with the idea. On leaving school, he started studying aerospace engineering at university. Nevertheless, he could not forget his clean up system. Consequently, he put his studies on hold to work on his idea. An online talk gave him publicity and he raised two million pounds on a crowdfunding site. Moreover, he won the support of the Dutch government. Slat’s idea has passed the prototype stage, and is now being tested in various locations. If his design succeeds, the oceans will be cleaner, and the world will be a much better place.

Pag. 115

Es. 1

  1. town hall
  2. Have you seen
  3. took
  4. might
  5. mayor
  6. can’t
  7. council
  8. ‘ve spoken
  9. spoke
  10. ban
  11. Did she sign
  12. have they banned
  13. must
  14. didn’t give

Es. 2

  1. activists
  2. held
  3. referendum
  4. had been engaging
  5. voted
  6. had been
  7. marches
  8. crowd
  9. had marched
  10. rally
  11. turnout
  12. had registered
  13. support
  14. won
  15. hadn’t expected

Es. 3

  • A What did you do on Sunday, Jess?
  • B I marched in the protest against the new airport.
  • A Had you already participated in a rally or was it your first march?
  • B I’ve always cared about civil rights and freedom of speech, but before Sunday I’d never got involved with local politics.
  • A Was there a big turnout?
  • B Yes, there was a crowd around the town hall. While we were protesting, a councillor came to speak with us!
  • A Did the councillor support you?
  • B I think so. We gave her a petition with ten thousand signatures of people who want a referendum about the airport.

Es. 4

I care about politics and I’ve voted in elections two times so far. I remember when I voted for the first time at the age of 18. I’d been looking forward to having the right to vote for months. When I went to the town hall that day, I couldn’t stop thinking about the people who had campaigned for votes for women over a century before.

Pag. 117

Es. 1

  1. used to/would
  2. use to
  3. used to
  4. used to/would
  5. use to
  6. used to

Es. 2

  1. used to be/was
  2. lived
  3. did Mark use to go/did Mark go
  4. didn’t use to eat/wouldn’t eat/didn’t eat
  5. didn’t use to swim/wouldn’t swim/didn’t swim

Es. 3

  1. We were used to getting up early.
  2. Are you used to living in London?
  3. I’m not used to eating spicy food.
  4. They can’t get used to wearing a uniform.
  5. Is Tom getting used to his new job?
  6. You’ll get used to taking exams.

Es. 4

  1. isn’t used to staying
  2. get used to the way of life
  3. ‘m getting used to driving
  4. hasn’t got used to the food/isn’t used to the food
  5. were used to working/got used to working

Es. 5

  1. where
  2. who
  3. when
  4. that/which
  5. whose
  6. that/who
  7. whom

Es. 6

  1. who/that
  2. who
  3. who/that/-
  4. who
  5. who/that/-
  6. who/that

Es. 7

  1. There’s an old olive tree growing in a pot.
  2. Students attending college don’t wear uniform.
  3. The man living next door to us is an actor.
  4. The utensils used in the kitchen are very old.
  5. The clock hanging over the fireplace belonged to my great-grandparents.

Pag. 118

Es. 1

  1. foreigner/guest/stranger
  2. roof/shelter
  3. belongings/stuff

Es. 2

  1. accommodation
  2. belongings
  3. roof
  4. shelter
  5. homesick
  6. Guests

Es. 3

  1. household
  2. stuff
  3. settle
  4. background
  5. homeland
  6. belongings
  7. surroundings
  8. homesick
  9. welcome

Es. 4

  1. d
  2. e
  3. b
  4. a
  5. c

Es. 5

  1. a
  2. a
  3. a
  4. b
  5. a
  6. b
  7. b
  8. a

Es. 6

  1. mood
  2. outlook
  3. wealth
  4. satisfaction
  5. upbringing
  6. life expectancy
  7. values Students’ own answers.

Pag. 119

Es. 7

  • a 3
  • b 5
  • c 2
  • d 4
  • e 1
  • f 6

Es. 8

  1. eight
  2. box
  3. standard
  4. basic
  5. plane
  6. staff
  7. homesick
  8. films

Pag. 120

Es. 1

  1. used to be
  2. used to live
  3. lived
  4. did you use to do
  5. used to spend
  6. would play
  7. was
  8. wouldn’t play

Es. 2

  1. used to/would
  2. lived
  3. used to have/had
  4. would/used to
  5. used to
  6. worked
  7. loved/used to love
  8. didn’t get

Es. 4

  1. ‘m not
  2. haven’t
  3. are you
  4. weren’t
  5. are

Es. 5

  1. getting used to
  2. ‘ll get used to
  3. haven’t got used to
  4. was used to
  5. was used to
  6. hasn’t got used to

Es. 6

  1. They’re getting used to living abroad.
  2. Jenny wasn’t used to her new school at first.
  3. Are you getting used to driving your new car?
  4. Jacob isn’t used to getting up early.
  5. We’ll get used to air travel.

Es. 7

  1. which
  2. where
  3. who/that
  4. who
  5. which/that/-
  6. whose
  7. when

Es. 8

  1. I spoke to the man who/that works at the library.
  2. They visited Rome, where they went on a tour of the Colosseum.
  3. Those are the students whose bikes were stolen.
  4. That necklace, which is over 100 years old, is very valuable.
  5. Sue’s aunt, who lives in Oxford, is coming to stay.
  6. Have you seen the book I was reading?

Es. 9

  1. looking
  2. produced
  3. released
  4. exposed
  5. investigating

Es. 10

  1. c, What’s the number of the bus coming down the road now?
  2. a, Wealth is a factor affecting people’s happiness.
  3. e, Dan drives a fast car produced in Germany.
  4. b, The people making a lot of noise aren’t from our village.
  5. d, The woman staying in Room 2 is a guest from Canada

Pag. 121

Es. 11

  1. started
  2. felt
  3. used to go/went
  4. where
  5. who/that
  6. when
  7. used to run/would run
  8. didn’t stay/didn’t use to stay/wouldn’t stay
  9. who
  10. gave/used to give/would give
  11. which
  12. didn’t like/didn’t use to like

Es. 12

  1. going
  2. get used to
  3. wasn’t used to
  4. ‘m used to
  5. located
  6. catching
  7. haven’t got used to
  8. finishing
  9. ‘m getting used to

page 122

Es. 1

  1. d
  2. a
  3. c
  4. f
  5. b

Es. 2

  1. USA
  2. something new
  3. cares about
  4. weather conditions
  5. sometimes

Es. 3

  1. T
  2. T
  3. F
  4. F
  5. F
  6. T

Pag. 123

Es. 4

  • A 2
  • B 3
  • C 1

Es. 5

  1. travel
  2. extreme
  3. region
  4. May
  5. July
  6. winter
  7. sun
  8. coloured

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. It’s known for its high standard of living.
  2. No, there aren’t. Nordkapp is the most northern inhabited place in Europe.
  3. Because, at times, you can see the sun at midnight.
  4. When the sun never rises completely above the horizon.
  5. He feels less positive in the winter because there’s less daylight.

Es. 7

  1. Whenever
  2. anybody
  3. anywhere
  4. Whatever
  5. wherever
  6. any time
  7. Whoever
  8. anything

Pag. 124

Es. 1

  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 0
  4. 2
  5. 0
  6. 0

Es. 2

  1. My hobbies are athletics, cycling, swimming and climbing.
  2. I went to the doctor’s because I had a long, painful cut on my leg.
  3. My aunt can speak Dutch, English, German and French fluently.
  4. I’ve got Maths, History and Geography homework tonight.
  5. Anna’s got long, straight, blonde hair.
  6. The weather is usually warm, sunny and dry where I live.

Es. 3

  1. D
  2. F
  3. H
  4. J
  5. K

Es. 4

  1. a soft, spicy, Italian sausage
  2. it creates jobs in the area, attracts tourists and protects regional food
  3. his big, beautiful, old home
  4. fresh, tasty and traditional
  5. developing, changing and evolving over time

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
The article I read was about the Danish concept of hygge. It says that hygge is something that makes you feel warm, comfortable and safe, such as sitting by the fire on a cold night, wearing a woolly jumper and drinking a mug of hot chocolate. Hygge can be an activity, a social atmosphere or a feeling. It’s the thing that helps the Danish get through their long, cold, dark winters. In fact, Denmark is one of the world’s happiest countries because of hygge, which has brought the concept to the attention of the rest of the world. In the UK and the USA, hygge is often used in advertising, and a number of books have also been written on the subject. Hygge is impossible to translate into other languages; the best translation in English is ‘cosiness’ but that doesn’t go far enough. Today you can find the word hygge in a number of different English dictionaries.

Pag. 125

Es. 1

  1. background
  2. -
  3. are
  4. well-being
  5. work-life balance
  6. used to work/would work
  7. didn’t use to have
  8. used to be/would be
  9. mood
  10. -
  11. didn’t use to like
  12. who
  13. is
  14. outlook

Es. 2

  1. arrived
  2. surroundings
  3. belongings
  4. accommodation
  5. roof
  6. went
  7. ‘m not used to staying
  8. ‘re used to seeing
  9. homesick
  10. welcome
  11. ‘m getting used to hearing
  12. get used to doing
  13. Foreigners
  14. belief

Es. 3

  • A Has your brother settled in Sydney, Greg?
  • B He’s found accommodation and his stuff has arrived, but I think he’s homesick.
  • A He needs to get used to the surroundings and build some relationships. Then his outlook will be better.
  • B Sure. He used to complain about the quality of life here, so I think that Sydney will give him satisfaction.
  • A I’m happy that he’s got his belongings and a roof over his head. Tell him that I asked about him.

Es. 4

I’m used to getting up early at the weekend because on Saturdays, I go to a children’s centre, where I volunteer as a play leader. Volunteering is something which gives me a sense of purpose and satisfaction. The children we welcome at the centre come from difficult backgrounds and we try to give them a more positive outlook on life. It takes time, but gradually they get used to chatting and playing games. I often tell them stories which my parents would tell me when I was a child.

Pag. 127

Es. 1

  1. ’ll have finished
  2. won’t have arrived
  3. won’t be living
  4. will be starting
  5. ’ll have been
  6. Will you be going

Es. 2

  1. They’ll be travelling to London this time tomorrow.
  2. Will you have started your new job by next week?
  3. I won’t have spoken to James by then.
  4. Hannah won’t be making dinner at three o’clock.
  5. You’ll have finished your exams by the time I see you next.
  6. When will you be seeing your cousins again?

Es. 3

  1. ’ll see
  2. will be
  3. ’re going to be
  4. won’t forget
  5. ’m not going to meet
  6. are you going to do

Es. 4

  1. starts
  2. may/might go
  3. does your flight leave
  4. ‘re meeting
  5. may/might walk
  6. ’re eating

Es. 5

  1. hear, ’ll tell
  2. ’ll be, get
  3. won’t go, knows
  4. ’ll see, enter
  5. won’t throw, needs

Es. 6

  1. ’s
  2. feel
  3. buy
  4. arrives

Es. 7

  1. If it doesn’t rain, we’ll go for a walk.
  2. There’ll be a problem if nobody listens.
  3. Will Elise contact you as soon as she arrives?
  4. People won’t buy it unless it’s cheap.
  5. What will you do when you leave school?

Es. 8

  1. would you do, found
  2. moved, ‘d miss
  3. went, would you feel
  4. couldn’t find, didn’t have
  5. ’d talk, were

Pag. 128

Es. 1

  • growth, increase, rise, upward
  • decrease, downward, drop, shrink

Es. 2

  1. doubled
  2. boom
  3. levelled off
  4. rate
  5. reach
  6. varies

Es. 3

  1. has risen
  2. will soar
  3. is booming
  4. has doubled
  5. is shrinking
  6. peaks

Es. 4

  1. c
  2. e
  3. b
  4. d
  5. a

Es. 5

  1. expect
  2. due to
  3. anticipate
  4. coming
  5. dread
  6. delay
  7. anxiety
  8. guess

Es. 6

  1. foresee
  2. one day/some day
  3. warn
  4. move … forward
  5. upcoming
  6. forecast
  7. expect
  8. dread

Pag. 129

Es. 7

  1. C
  2. B

Es. 8

  1. b
  2. c
  3. b
  4. c
  5. c
  6. a
  7. b
  8. c

pages 130

Es. 1

  1. e
  2. f
  3. b
  4. a
  5. d
  6. c

Es. 2

  1. ‘ll be thinking
  2. won’t be watching
  3. ‘ll be studying
  4. ‘ll have taken
  5. will you have written
  6. ‘ll have used
  7. will you and your friends be doing
  8. will have left

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. will I be doing
  2. won’t be living
  3. ‘ll be working
  4. will have got
  5. ‘ll have opened
  6. won’t have moved
  7. will be booming
  8. ‘ll be making/’ll have made

Es. 4

  1. will
  2. might
  3. ’re going to
  4. ’ll
  5. won’t
  6. ‘s going to

Es. 5

  1. is flying
  2. takes
  3. ’s staying
  4. ’ll take
  5. might not
  6. ’s going to get
  7. ’ll be
  8. ‘ll go

Es. 6

  1. is opening
  2. will benefit
  3. may/might/could find
  4. ’ll show
  5. ‘m meeting
  6. ’re going to see
  7. ’ll love
  8. won’t get

Es. 7

  1. won’t, rains
  2. gets, ’ll phone
  3. until, arrives
  4. won’t, leaves
  5. by the time, come

Es. 8

  1. is
  2. will be
  3. ‘re
  4. were
  5. ‘d be

Es. 9

  1. had, ‘d buy
  2. wouldn’t worry, were
  3. do you get, mix
  4. doesn’t know, ‘ll ask
  5. will Mark do, leaves

Es. 10

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. I hate it when it rains./If it rains, we won’t have a barbecue.
  2. I’ll take it to the repair shop if I go to town./If I had more money, I’d buy a new one.
  3. I feel really tired when I go to bed late./If I didn’t have to go to school today, I’d stay in bed.
  4. If I had more time, I’d take up a sport./I always feel good when I do exercise.

Pag. 131

Es. 11

  1. is taking
  2. rises
  3. mentions
  4. gets
  5. ‘ll be
  6. finish
  7. Are you going
  8. go
  9. ‘ll need
  10. won’t like
  11. will be
  12. ‘s having
  13. ‘re going to drive
  14. ‘ll have
  15. might go
  16. ‘ll take

Es. 12

  1. Oscar is going to run seven marathons in seven days.
  2. Well, that certainly won’t be easy.
  3. This time next week, he’ll be starting the first one.
  4. How long will it take?
  5. If he doesn’t have any problems, he’ll probably finish about five hours later.
  6. If I tried to run a marathon, it’d take 15 hours!
  7. He hopes people will sponsor him and he’ll raise a lot of money for charity.
  8. Is he planning to run alone?
  9. but he’s going to take a mobile phone in case he needs help.
  10. What distance will he have run after seven days?
  11. By the time he finishes, he’ll have run about 295 km!
  12. I’ll definitely sponsor him.

page 132

Es. 1

  1. D
  2. B
  3. A
  4. C

Es. 2

  1. F
  2. F
  3. T
  4. T
  5. F
  6. T

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. They enjoy the thrill of going up and down and upside down.
  2. People could become unconscious or feel nauseated on more extreme roller coasters.
  3. Brendan Walker’s ride will offer a virtual reality experience as well as a physical one.
  4. It’s essential for riders to wear a special cap which records their brainwaves and special goggles for the virtual reality experience. Riders will also use a special chair to raise them above the ground.
  5. Riders must control their thoughts in order to change what happens during the ride.

Pag. 133

Es. 4

  • a 2
  • b 4
  • c 1
  • d 5
  • e 3

Es. 5

  1. Fewer
  2. price
  3. worried
  4. if
  5. increasing
  6. be more confident

Es. 6

  1. Students think it’ll take a long time to repay student loans and that makes them feel anxious.
  2. Yes, they have, because he’s changed his mind about going to university in September. He’s going to take a gap year instead.
  3. Most young people travel abroad in their gap year and do voluntary work.
  4. Harry will be backpacking in India and then he’s going to Madagascar to volunteer on a wildlife conservation project.
  5. During his gap year, Harry will decide if he really wants to go to university.
  6. Harry thinks he’ll have become a better person by the time he returns.

Es. 7

  1. one-metre-long
  2. 24-hour
  3. 15-page
  4. internationally-recognised
  5. ten-year-old
  6. badly-behaved

Pag. 134

Es. 1

  1. examples
  2. reasons
  3. causes
  4. conditions
  5. results

Es. 2

  1. examples
  2. causes
  3. conditions
  4. reasons
  5. results

Es. 3

  1. New concept of what a friend is
  2. Changes how we write
  3. Time restrictions
  4. Connection speed
  5. Source of ideas
  6. Going out

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Technology is destroying our privacy

  • I. Introduction
  • II. Communication
    • A.Email
      1. Hackers
      2. Group messages
    • Mobile phones
      1. Easy to track
      2. Accessible to police
  • III. Personal data
  • Bank information
      1. Easy password
      2. Phishing
    • B Shopping habits
      1. Tracking software
      2. Social media comments
  • IV. Images
  • Online photos
      1. No privacy settings on social media
      2. Blackmail
    • CCTV Images
      1. Our movements are known
      2. Impossible to disappear
  • V. Conclusion

Pag. 135

Es. 1

  1. ‘ll be doing
  2. will be looking
  3. foresee
  4. one day
  5. growth
  6. were/was
  7. would have
  8. vary
  9. continues
  10. will continue
  11. will have looked
  12. peak
  13. go
  14. wake

Es. 2

  1. get ahead
  2. due to
  3. are you going to write
  4. rise
  5. spend
  6. become
  7. anxiety
  8. will you be doing
  9. ‘ll be doing
  10. won’t realise
  11. ‘ll have spent
  12. don’t act
  13. upward
  14. will continue
  15. push it back
  16. expect

Es. 3

  • A The school director forecasts that in 2030 the number of students at our school will have doubled!
  • B If we reach a thousand students, where will we all study? If they anticipate that sort of growth, we’ll need more space.
  • A The director has brought forward the project to build five new classrooms.
  • B When are they going to start construction?
  • A It isn’t upcoming, but they expect to begin in two or three years.
  • B If I were the director, I’d delay construction. I think this upward trend will level off in a few years.
  • A Why don’t you warn him?
  • B If he wanted my opinion, he’d ask me for it!

Es. 4

I don’t anticipate there’ll ever be a downward trend in the use of smartphones. I dread that I’ll lose mine one day. I have anxiety unless it’s near me and I check it as soon as I wake up in the morning. In fact, by the time I get out of bed, I’ll already have sent several messages to friends, read the news and checked the weather. How else will I know what clothes to wear that day?

Pag. 137

Es. 1

  1. was/were
  2. hadn’t eaten
  3. could
  4. didn’t like
  5. ‘d done

Es. 2

  1. wouldn’t
  2. would
  3. wouldn’t
  4. wouldn’t
  5. would

Es. 3

  1. hadn’t lost
  2. ‘d have known
  3. wouldn’t have enjoyed
  4. ‘d got
  5. ‘d stayed
  6. ‘d have seen

Es. 4

  1. could have come
  2. might have liked
  3. might have been
  4. could have won
  5. could have helped

Es. 5

  1. If we’d brought a map, we wouldn’t be lost.
  2. Zac would be fit if he hadn’t broken his ankle.
  3. You’d have a big repair bill now if you hadn’t taken out insurance.
  4. If he’d missed the train, he wouldn’t be here now.
  5. If I were/was richer, I’d have bought that scooter yesterday.

Es. 6

  1. should
  2. ought not to
  3. have to
  4. mustn’t
  5. should
  6. don’t have to
  7. ‘d better
  8. must

Es. 7

  1. must have been
  2. can’t have opened
  3. could/may/might have gone
  4. should have bought
  5. shouldn’t have touched

Pag. 138

Es. 1

  1. e
  2. c
  3. f
  4. a
  5. b
  6. d

Es. 2

  1. underestimate
  2. chance
  3. mess
  4. fake
  5. let
  6. design

Es. 3

  1. lie
  2. pretend
  3. let (myself) down
  4. mistake/accident
  5. failure
  6. overestimate
  7. slip up/mess up/make a mistake
  8. slip-ups/mistakes

Es. 4

  1. complain
  2. deny
  3. blame
  4. quit
  5. own up to

Es. 5

  1. b
  2. c
  3. c
  4. b
  5. a
  6. a
  7. c

Es. 6

  1. admit
  2. judge
  3. cover up
  4. dwell on
  5. quit
  6. deal with
  7. let go

Pag. 139

Es. 7

  • 2 ✔️
  • 3 ✔️
  • 6 ✔️

Es. 8

  1. F
  2. F
  3. T
  4. F
  5. T
  6. T
  7. T
  8. F

pag 140

Es. 1

  1. If only I hadn’t gone to bed late last night.
  2. If only I wasn’t/weren’t tired.
  3. I wish I knew what to write.
  4. If only I’d paid attention in class.
  5. I wish people would stop phoning me.

Es. 2

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. I wish they’d try harder.
  2. If only they were punctual.
  3. If only they were more polite.
  4. I wish they’d spend more money.
  5. I wish we’d won more matches.
  6. If only we played better.

Es. 3

  1. ‘d known
  2. ‘d have visited
  3. hadn’t fallen
  4. wouldnt't be
  5. ‘d woken
  6. ‘d have caught
  7. wouldn’t have had
  8. had been

Es. 4

  1. If it hadn’t rained yesterday, we’d have played tennis.
  2. If I hadn’t found the website, I wouldn’t have ordered some books.
  3. If my parents hadn’t met 20 years ago, I wouldn’t be here now.
  4. If Bill had heard his phone, he’d have answered it.
  5. If you’d taken a satnav, you wouldn’t be lost.

Es. 5

  1. have
  2. must
  3. don’t need to
  4. ought to
  5. mustn’t
  6. should

Es. 6

  1. better
  2. should
  3. mustn’t
  4. ought
  5. have/need
  6. must

Es. 8

  1. c
  2. e
  3. b
  4. a
  5. d

Es. 9

  1. might have seen
  2. must have had
  3. should have brought
  4. can’t have known
  5. shouldn’t have lied

Es. 10

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. She might have missed her bus.
  2. They must have tried hard.
  3. I shouldn’t have eaten so much.
  4. He can’t have lost them.

Pag. 141

Es. 11

  1. ‘d turn
  2. should
  3. have warned
  4. could
  5. have made
  6. ‘d invited
  7. wouldn’t have
  8. ought to
  9. were/was
  10. shouldn’t
  11. wouldn’t be
  12. hadn’t had
  13. ‘d admitted

Es. 12

  1. could
  2. must
  3. ‘d known
  4. had told
  5. Should
  6. ‘d better
  7. need
  8. don’t have to
  9. ought not
  10. mustn’t
  11. have to
  12. didn’t have to
  13. ‘d stop
  14. shouldn’t

page 142

Es. 1

  • 2 ✔

Es. 2

  1. problems
  2. Asia
  3. hadn’t done anything particularly special
  4. prove that the noble was wrong
  5. understands

Es. 3

  1. T
  2. F
  3. F
  4. T
  5. F
  6. T

page 143

Es. 4

  1. dial-up modem
  2. overhead projector
  3. photography film
  4. Walkman
  5. VHS cassette
  6. fax machine
  7. typewriter
  8. rotary telephone

Es. 5

  1. T
  2. F
  3. T
  4. F
  5. T
  6. F
  7. F
  8. T

Es. 6

  1. The light bulb became hot.
  2. You had to wait for the dial to return to the start position before you dialled another number.
  3. They carried around a large music player.
  4. It was difficult to correct your mistakes.
  5. If you made a mistake, it was often too late to take a better photo.

Es. 7

  1. nonsense
  2. dishonest
  3. mislead
  4. devalue
  5. antibiotics

Pag. 144

Es. 1

  1. such as
  2. providing (that)
  3. as long as
  4. subsequently
  5. whereas

Es. 2

Multiple answers are correct in any order:

  1. as long as/providing (that)/on condition that
  2. such as
  3. similarly/likewise
  4. Previously
  5. Whereas
  6. For example

Es. 3

  1. communicate
  2. friend
  3. contact
  4. write
  5. entertainment
  6. time
  7. websites
  8. screen
  9. (Internet) connection
  10. information
  11. free time
  12. travel
  • a whereas
  • b Likewise
  • c on condition that
  • d such as
  • e previously

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
I know that technology helps us in many ways, but I don’t think all of its effects are positive. Perhaps the most dangerous effect is that it is destroying our privacy. Most people seem ready to accept this, but I’m not. One aspect of our lives that’s particularly vulnerable is communication. Every time we send an email, our message risks being seen by hackers or simply other people who are copied into the message, possibly without our knowledge. Using our mobiles is dangerous too, because our calls are easy to track, so people know where we are. I know this access is important for the police, but they need to use it wisely. Technology also makes it difficult to keep our personal data private. Nowadays most people use online bank accounts, and their bank data is easy to access if they use easy passwords or they are victims of phishing. As we buy a lot of things online, this data is at risk too. Special tracking software collects data about what we buy online, and even our social media comments are examined to see how we spend our money. It’s no surprise that we receive targeted advertising! Finally, technology makes it difficult to keep digital images private. This can be our fault, for example if we let anyone see our photos on social media. But sometimes private photos are stolen and people are blackmailed to prevent them from becoming public. Images of us are also constantly gathered by video cameras in public spaces, so that it’s always possible to track our movements. I know this is useful for the police as well, but it’s sad to think that we can’t simply disappear - everything we do is public! I haven’t got anything to hide, but I like to keep certain things in my life private. I can’t control all of the technology that ‘watches’ me, but I might limit the technology that I use.

Pag. 145

Es. 1

  1. must
  2. mustn’t
  3. can’t
  4. have forgotten
  5. don’t have to
  6. lie
  7. pretend
  8. admit
  9. could
  10. have done
  11. shouldn’t
  12. underestimate
  13. need to
  14. shouldn’t
  15. have said
  16. make the most of

Es. 2

  1. would stop
  2. hadn’t lost
  3. had continued
  4. ‘d have met
  5. have shown
  6. mess things up
  7. by accident
  8. ‘d admitted
  9. on purpose
  10. would have been
  11. deny
  12. blame
  13. put things right
  14. forgive
  15. could

Es. 3

  • A What’s the problem, Zac?
  • B I let down the team during the match yesterday.
  • A Don’t dwell on it. If you made a mistake, I’m sure you didn’t do it on purpose.
  • B Obviously. The team don’t blame me, but I can’t forgive myself.
  • A What was your terrible slip-up?
  • B I shouldn’t have overestimated my ability. I wish I’d given the ball to Greg!
  • A Greg might have failed too. Let go, Zac!
  • B Maybe you’re right. If only I could put things right!
  • A There are two matches left, Zac. Try to make the most of them!

Es. 4

I wish I hadn’t passed up the opportunity to go to the theatre on Saturday. I must admit I thought it would be boring, so I gave another student the chance to go. If I’d gone, I’d have seen my favourite actor. If only I’d known that she’d be there. I could have had a selfie with her like my friends. I wish they’d stop showing me their photos!

Pag. 147

Es. 1

  1. a smaller one
  2. one
  3. ones
  4. paper
  5. ones
  6. one

Es. 2

  1. a, one
  2. -, ones
  3. an, one
  4. -, one
  5. a, one
  6. -, one

Es. 3

  1. Do you get your nails done? (them)
  2. You can have your bedroom decorated. (to)
  3. I hate having my hair washed. (have)
  4. Getting a house painted is expensive. (get)
  5. She got us to buy tickets. (buying)
  6. The website has people register their names. (it)

Es. 4

  1. get it serviced
  2. got me to sign
  3. Having it dyed
  4. get it delivered
  5. had us wait
  6. ‘re having them checked

Es. 5

  1. is served
  2. ’s been produced
  3. is being built
  4. was sent
  5. was still being cleaned
  6. will be done
  7. hadn’t been done
  8. ‘re going to be fed

Es. 6

  1. They were sent a text message.
  2. We were stopped from entering by a security guard.
  3. This is considered to be a great shop.
  4. Cycling helmets should be worn.
  5. A present was given to the teacher by the students.
  6. The painting mustn’t be touched.

Pag. 148

Es. 1

  1. employ, employees
  2. entrepreneur, set up
  3. raw material, manufacture
  4. employment, firm
  5. delivery, warehouse

Es. 2

  1. handmade, mass-produced
  2. employer, employment, employees
  3. warehouse, goods, faults

Es. 3

  1. goods
  2. handmade
  3. designs
  4. raw materials
  5. manufacturing
  6. fault
  7. mass-produced
  8. make money
  9. employment

Es. 4

  1. borrow
  2. owned
  3. fix
  4. lend
  5. give it back
  6. giving them away

Es. 5

  1. own
  2. lend
  3. hiring it out
  4. fee
  5. gives it back
  6. rating
  7. trust
  8. review

Es. 6

  1. middleman
  2. giving the stuff away
  3. loan
  4. Pass them on/Give them away
  5. swap
  6. fix

Pag. 150

Es. 1

  1. an orange one
  2. one
  3. one
  4. ones
  5. ones
  6. a red one

Es. 2

  1. My phone’s old, so I’d love a new phone one.
  2. (no change)
  3. I need a €1 coin, but I haven’t got a €1 coin one.
  4. The answers are correct except for the answers ones in section E.
  5. (no change)
  6. Your bag’s really cool. Is it the bag one you bought in Spain?

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. blue, black ones
  2. a cheap one
  3. the Swedish one
  4. a stapler, one

Es. 4

  1. You can get/have your eyes tested.
  2. You can get/have an outfit made.
  3. You can get/have your photo taken.
  4. You can get/have a laptop mended.

Es. 5

  1. I had my bike fixed yesterday.
  2. Katy’s getting her ears pierced right now.
  3. We’ve had our house cleaned.
  4. They get their teeth checked twice a year.
  5. Have you had your temperature taken?
  6. You need to get your suit cleaned.

Es. 6

  1. service it
  2. anyone to open
  3. someone to test
  4. me swap
  5. us to do

Es. 7

  1. is
  2. to
  3. by
  4. been
  5. was
  6. be
  7. are
  8. won’t

Es. 8

  1. It’s been called the Tube for years.
  2. It’s considered to be the fastest way to get around London.
  3. Oxford Circus station is used by about
  4. million people every year.
  5. The first 24-hour services were introduced in 2016.
  6. The Tube map was designed by Harry Beck in 1933.
  7. Another line will probably be added in the future.

Es. 9

  1. is spent
  2. be avoided
  3. aren’t wanted
  4. was being wasted
  5. is made
  6. be bought
  7. weren’t bought
  8. were sent
  9. had been given
  10. will be appreciated

Es. 10

  1. an
  2. one
  3. had it made
  4. have you had your ears pierced
  5. did you get them done
  6. one
  7. gets her hair cut
  8. a
  9. ones
  10. having my teeth checked

Es. 11

  1. are served
  2. be said
  3. has been taken
  4. had
  5. had been reserved
  6. get
  7. got
  8. was finally served
  9. is being done
  10. is going to be built
  11. get
  12. was stopped
  13. is considered
  14. have

Pag. 152

Es. 1

  1. d
  2. f
  3. c
  4. e
  5. a

Es. 2

  1. c
  2. c
  3. a
  4. c
  5. b

Es. 3

  1. Because people couldn’t buy many clothes during the war and the government wanted people to reuse old ones.
  2. Daisy decided to change her life after she’d read an article about sustainable living.
  3. Yes, she did, because they wanted new things all the time.
  4. Friends and neighbours passed things on to Daisy and her family during the year.
  5. They couldn’t buy presents that Christmas so they gave homemade presents and the Christmas tree was made out of books.

Pag. 153

Es. 4

  1. waste
  2. recycled
  3. useful
  4. employees

Es. 5

  1. easy
  2. USA
  3. costs money
  4. was
  5. donates

Es. 6

  1. It’s burned or goes to landfill (buried under the earth).
  2. He wants to eliminate waste completely.
  3. When the public send waste to TerraCycle, the company donates money to a charity of their choice.
  4. A lot of waste isn’t sent to landfill now.
  5. No, he can’t, because he can’t be paid more than seven times the amount his lowest paid employee earns.

Es. 7

  1. popularise
  2. simplify
  3. sadden
  4. clarify
  5. economise
  6. shorten

Pag. 154

Es. 1

  1. d
  2. b
  3. a
  4. c
  5. a

Es. 2

  1. following/next
  2. like/enjoy
  3. them
  4. dinner
  5. We

Es. 3

  1. brother’s
  2. there
  3. and we started playing
  4. couldn’t
  5. bought
  6. What a disaster!

Es. 4

  • A He
  • B we heard
  • C possible answer: The smoke frightened us
  • D possible answers: rushed/hurried/went (over)
  • E My brother and I

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Last weekend I was doing some practice exercises for my maths exam when my dad came into my room. ‘Would you like a smoothie?’ he asked. I said that I would, so he went to the kitchen to make it. About five minutes later, Dad came back with a large glass containing a delicious looking pink smoothie. Unfortunately, he didn’t see my school bag next to the door and he tripped over the handle. The drink flew out of his hand and went all over my desk. When I looked down, I saw that my laptop was covered in banana and strawberry smoothie. I grabbed some tissues and quickly cleaned off as much of it as I could. Then I tried to press one of the keys. It was then that I discovered that my laptop wasn’t working. I didn’t know what to do so I decided to have a break and go back to my laptop later, so I watched TV for a while. My laptop still wasn’t working when I went back to it, and it didn’t work the next morning either. The smoothie had got inside, and my laptop was completely destroyed. As for my maths exam, I failed because I hadn’t practised enough. What a disaster!

Pag. 155

Es. 1

  1. Have you ever had a pair of shoes made
  2. have been made
  3. ones
  4. are still being manufactured/are still manufactured
  5. were attracted
  6. raw materials
  7. set up
  8. had a new factory built
  9. employees
  10. was considered
  11. be found
  12. handmade
  13. firm
  14. warehouse
  15. mass-produced
  16. have their shoes cleaned
  17. get them mended
  18. trust

Es. 2

  1. hire
  2. borrow
  3. Have the lights been fixed
  4. mend
  5. a buffet prepared
  6. reviews
  7. delivery
  8. make
  9. Phoebe to help
  10. middleman
  11. lend us
  12. are checked
  13. ‘re stopped/’ll be stopped
  14. was sent to her
  15. write it

Es. 3

  • A Excuse me, Tina. Do you know if the new warehouse has been set up?
  • B It was opened last week, Josh. It’s much bigger than the old one!
  • A And when does manufacturing begin here?
  • B The delivery of the raw materials is being made in this moment. If the employees begin on Monday, the goods in the first order will be manufactured this month.
  • A Thanks!

Es. 4

Swiss watches are considered to be the best in the world. However, last month I bought one online and I can’t get it to work. Getting it swapped is impossible. A helpline number was supplied with the watch, but they have you wait in a queue for ages. When your call is answered, you’re spoken to by a robot, not an employee. A lot of negative reviews have been posted on the firm’s website and now there’s one more. It was written by me!

Pag. 157

Es. 1

  1. made
  2. Let
  3. let
  4. make
  5. makes
  6. let
  7. lets
  8. made

Es. 2

  1. It rained all day. Nevertheless, we went for a walk.
  2. Max loves current affairs. What’s more, he’d love to be a journalist.
  3. Lara reads books and plays as well as magazines.
  4. Although they don’t speak the same language, they manage to communicate.
  5. I’m a friend of Alice’s. I know her brother too.
  6. They work together and they’re also good friends.
  7. I didn’t feel well. However, I still went to school.
  8. In spite of the fact that John’s 80, he still goes running./John still goes running, in spite of the fact that he’s 80.

Es. 3

  1. was
  2. wasn’t going to
  3. ‘ll open
  4. had moved
  5. had to pay
  6. was sleeping
  7. should go
  8. didn’t work

Es. 4

  1. c
  2. g
  3. b
  4. e
  5. f
  6. d
  7. a

Es. 5

  1. asked, I was
  2. asked, was
  3. told, not to
  4. if, knew
  5. told, to sit
  6. to, her

Pag. 158

Es. 1

  1. news
  2. captions
  3. broadcasts
  4. live
  5. headlines
  6. edit
  7. publish
  8. press

Es. 2

  1. broadcast
  2. report
  3. coverage
  4. source
  5. reporters
  6. sides
  7. breaking news
  8. at the scene

Es. 3

  1. press, news
  2. witness, footage
  3. presenter, reporter
  4. live, breaking news Students’ own answers

Es. 4

  1. e
  2. a
  3. d
  4. f
  5. b
  6. c

Es. 5

  1. viewpoint
  2. objective
  3. spin
  4. unreliable
  5. prejudice
  6. trick
  7. angle
  8. shape

Es. 6

  1. pressure
  2. pressurising
  3. play up
  4. playing down
  5. bias
  6. prejudice
  7. make up

Pag. 159

Es. 7

  • A 4
  • C 1
  • D 2
  • E 3

Es. 8

  1. The report from the warehouse is (being broadcast) live.
  2. According to a witness, a man ran away from the warehouse.
  3. Motorists had problems getting to work.
  4. Something had happened on a bridge over the A56.
  5. An incorrect caption was published about Harry Marks.
  6. The Independent Press Standards Organisation examined both sides of the story.
  7. The good Samaritan in the handbag story was a female jogger.

Pag. 160

Es. 1

  1. let me print
  2. make the ink run
  3. makes me feel
  4. let it upset
  5. lets people use

Es. 2

  1. ‘ll make you laugh
  2. will let them go
  3. make you turn off
  4. (used to) let her wear
  5. lets him ride

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible sentences: My parents didn’t let me stay up late last night. The school makes us wear a uniform. Sad films make me cry. I let my friends borrow my bike. Dogs make some people feel scared. The government will make people pay higher taxes in the future.

Es. 4

  1. Even though
  2. as well as
  3. Despite
  4. However
  5. In addition
  6. As well as

Es. 5

  1. , too
  2. Despite/In spite of
  3. Nevertheless,
  4. Even though/Although
  5. as well as
  6. also
  7. Despite/In spite of
  8. What’s more,/In addition,/Furthermore,

Es. 6

  1. last
  2. said
  3. told
  4. isn’t
  5. me
  6. him
  7. says

Es. 7

  1. told
  2. was/was going to be
  3. that
  4. should
  5. said
  6. hadn’t watched
  7. had to/’d had to
  8. are saying/say
  9. want

Es. 8

  1. My mum told me (that) she’d spoken to my teacher.
  2. I said (that) I didn’t want to know what he’d said.
  3. Your teacher says (that) you need to work harder.
  4. I told her (that) I’d try harder the following term.
  5. My mum says (that) I must always do my best.

Es. 9

  1. He asked them if/whether they’d found the homework hard.
  2. He told them to listen carefully.
  3. He asked Mark where he’d been.
  4. He asked Joe to help him move the tables.
  5. He told them not to forget their gym kit.

Es. 10

  1. asked me where I was flying to
  2. asked me if/whether I’d packed my case myself
  3. asked me if/whether I’d been given anything by another person
  4. told me not to touch anything/told me to put my hands by my side
  5. to put my hands by my side/not to touch anything
  6. told me to go through to departures

Pag. 161

Es. 11

  1. let everyone know
  2. make you all want
  3. However
  4. let us choose/’ve let us choose
  5. Despite the fact
  6. too
  7. Even though
  8. What’s more
  9. Although
  10. as well as
  11. made them think

Es. 12

  1. Huan said (that) she’d been the summer before.
  2. Tom asked (Huan/her) what it’d been like.
  3. Huan said (that) she’d show Tom/him her photos.
  4. Tom said (that) that would be great because he might go the following month.
  5. Huan said (that) he had to visit the British Museum.
  6. Tom said (that) he’d heard it was excellent.
  7. Huan told him/Tom to go on a boat trip too.
  8. Tom asked (Huan/her) if/whether it would be sunny in July.
  9. Huan told him/Tom not to worry about the weather.
  10. She told him to take an umbrella.
  11. Tom said (that) he would.
  12. Huan asked him/Tom to buy her some British tea if he went.
  13. She said (that) she couldn’t buy it in China.

Pag. 162

Es. 1

  1. C
  2. B
  3. E
  4. D
  5. A

Es. 2

  1. F
  2. F
  3. T
  4. T
  5. F

Es. 3

  1. To be a Word of the Year, a word must be widely used by many different people for twelve months.
  2. Yes, they can. Suggestions can be submitted by members of the public via social media.
  3. Emotional appeal is more important than objective facts.
  4. ‘Post-truth’ was most commonly used as an adjective to describe politics.
  5. Both sides in the Brexit campaign made claims that weren’t factually accurate.

Pag. 163

Es. 4

  • a lecturer

Es. 5

  • 1 ✔️
  • 2 ✔️
  • 4 ✔️
  • 5 ✔️
  • 7 ✔️

Es. 6

  1. There are new things to cover every day, which makes the course interesting.
  2. The course trains students to be multimedia journalists.
  3. Journalists have to follow a code of practice and observe laws.
  4. Students can experience real-life reporting in the two newsrooms.
  5. The academics who teach the course have worked as journalists in the UK and around the world.

Es. 7

  1. imagination
  2. tolerance
  3. argument
  4. impression
  5. proposal
  6. preference
  7. coverage
  8. solution

Pag. 164

Es. 1

  • b ✔
  • g ✔

Es. 2

  1. According to ecologist Tim Price, ‘People seem to be more interested in recycling these days.’
  2. ‘If we make goods to last,’ says factory owner Ben Jones, ‘our sales will fall.’
  3. Student Amy Heath says, ‘It’s unethical to throw away clothes you’ve never worn.’
  4. ‘It’s time the government took steps to boost the economy,’ says MP Richard King.
  5. ‘Quality goods cost more,’ says economist Rachel White, ‘but you end up saving money.’
  6. ‘Buying new things makes me happy,’ says consumer Harry Briggs.

Es. 3

  1. Frances Hodgson Burnett’s (book) The Secret Garden (1911)
  2. ‘The hedge blocks the sunlight from entering my living room.’
  3. ‘It looks like a jungle.’
  4. Possible answers: he will do it/he will cut it/he will comply
  5. ‘It’s my hedge, and I’ll do what I like with it’

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Film critic Britney Adams has written a very favourable review of Mel Gibson’s film Hacksaw Ridge (2016). The film tells the true story of conscientious objector Desmond Doss who joined the US army at the start of World War II and saved 75 of his comrades during the attack on Okinawa Island in 1945. Adams starts by highlighting the power of the film which leaves some of the audience ‘crying their hearts out’ at the end. She goes on to praise director Mel Gibson for telling Doss’s story in such a tense, but fascinating way. Finally she mentions the young British actor Andrew Garfield, who she says gives ‘a terrific performance’ as Desmond Doss. She sums up by saying that Hacksaw Ridge is ‘the bloodiest film about a pacifist you’ll ever see’ and hints that some viewers might want to ‘hide behind their seats’ during some of the battle scenes.

Pag. 165

Es. 1

  1. make me
  2. pressure
  3. too
  4. Nevertheless
  5. lets you
  6. as well as
  7. Even though
  8. the press
  9. make some celebrities
  10. turn out
  11. makes journalists
  12. unreliable
  13. Despite
  14. viewpoint
  15. makes/made them

Es. 2

  1. angle
  2. objective
  3. sides
  4. bias
  5. leave out
  6. make them up
  7. fall for
  8. source
  9. tricks
  10. spin

Es. 3

  1. (that) it was
  2. had to be
  3. not to leave out
  4. where she could get
  5. she’d make them up
  6. her to go
  7. doesn’t trust

Es. 4

  • A Have you heard the news, Melissa? Brian says he’s going to change school.
  • B Brian makes up a new story every day. Don’t fall for what he says. He told me that he had footage of Martians!
  • A Really? Did he let you see it?
  • B Are you joking? He told me that after he had recorded the footage, the Martians made him destroy it!
  • A It seems that he’s a very unreliable source.
  • B I don’t want to bias your opinion of Brian, but don’t ask me to believe his stories!

Es. 5

When I was a child, my father always made me watch the news. Despite my young age, I soon started to enjoy hearing the headlines and watching reports from around the world. What’s more, when there was breaking news, I loved watching reporters broadcasting live right at the scene. My father wasn’t surprised when I said that I wanted to study journalism and become a reporter. He smiled and told me to follow my dreams.

Pag. 167

Es. 1

  1. George has got so many friends. (such)
  2. That was such an amazing film. (a)
  3. There were so few people at the party. (such)
  4. I love chocolate so much. (such)
  5. It was such a surprise to see you. (so)
  6. It was so cold that it snowed. (such)
  7. You can get across town so quickly. (quick)
  8. We know so little about him. (such)

Es. 2

  1. Since
  2. seeing
  3. due to
  4. Consequently,
  5. as a result of
  6. so as
  7. in order that
  8. As a result,
  9. on account of
  10. As

Es. 3

  1. so
  2. in order
  3. Since
  4. Therefore
  5. owing to
  6. Seeing

Es. 4

  1. d
  2. g
  3. b
  4. e
  5. c
  6. a
  7. f

Es. 5

  1. not
  2. that
  3. us
  4. on
  5. said
  6. to
  7. about
  8. told

Es. 6

  1. would end
  2. were meeting
  3. were going to travel
  4. was going to stay
  5. wouldn’t win
  6. was planning

Pag. 168

Es. 1

  1. out
  2. after
  3. up
  4. along
  5. apart
  6. up

Es. 2

  1. got to know
  2. get along
  3. have a lot in common
  4. is there for
  5. ‘d been in a relationship
  6. take her for granted

Es. 3

  1. belong
  2. will be there for
  3. hit it off
  4. ‘s dating
  5. be a pain
  6. would drive me mad
  7. put up with

Es. 4

  1. d
  2. a
  3. c
  4. e
  5. b
  6. f

Es. 5

  1. make up
  2. bang on
  3. keep quiet
  4. lose your temper
  5. stand up for
  6. hold back

Es. 6

  1. a
  2. a
  3. c
  4. b
  5. b
  6. a
  7. a
  8. c

Pag. 169

Es. 7

  1. lesson
  2. emotion
  3. three
  4. deal with

Es. 8

  1. people
  2. normal
  3. shout
  4. positive
  5. physical
  6. calm

Pag. 170

Es. 1

  1. such
  2. so
  3. so
  4. so
  5. such

Es. 2

  1. such a
  2. so
  3. that
  4. such an
  5. so
  6. that
  7. So
  8. so
  9. that

Es. 3

  1. so much
  2. such a
  3. such an
  4. so many
  5. so few
  6. that

Es. 4

  1. seeing
  2. account
  3. result
  4. order
  5. Therefore
  6. so

Es. 5

  1. c
  2. a
  3. b
  4. a
  5. c
  6. a
  7. a
  8. b

Es. 6

Students’ own answers. Possible sentences: Reason: I can’t hire a car yet on account of my age. I got an A in my last exam because I studied really hard. Result: Trains were delayed today. As a result, I was late for school. I forgot my PIN number yesterday so I couldn’t get any money. Purpose: I have a Saturday job in order to get work experience. I’m getting a passport so that I can go abroad this summer.

Es. 7

  1. predicted, would be
  2. denied, arguing
  3. encouraged, to jump
  4. promised, not to say

Es. 8

  1. Ella promised to take a taxi.
  2. Ted denied eating all the cake.
  3. Mum insisted on knowing the truth.
  4. Jack begged Harry to help him.
  5. Harry refused to tell Jack/him the answers.
  6. Leah apologised for being late.
  7. Nick informed Leah/her that the film had already started.

Es. 9

  1. he’d be home late
  2. Cara was going to change her mind
  3. they’d hit it off
  4. we were meeting after school

Es. 10

  1. thought she’d get a good mark in the test
  2. had a feeling Ben was going to ask her out
  3. was going shopping with Mia after school
  4. was sure it wouldn’t rain on the way home
  5. didn’t think she’d get any homework that night

Pag. 171

Es. 11

  1. so
  2. owing to
  3. In order
  4. Since
  5. As a result
  6. so
  7. such a
  8. due
  9. So
  10. such an
  11. this reason

Es. 12

  1. would be/was going to be
  2. would vote
  3. announced
  4. had won
  5. would feel/was going to feel
  6. warned
  7. not to raise
  8. were going to vote
  9. admitted
  10. had voted
  11. had made
  12. bragged
  13. winning
  14. suggested
  15. kept

Pag. 172

Es. 1

  1. b
  2. c
  3. e
  4. f
  5. d

Es. 2

  1. a
  2. c
  3. b
  4. c
  5. b
  6. a

Es. 3

  1. They have a monthly meeting to talk over any problems.
  2. They don’t have their house cleaned. They have a weekly rota for the chores.
  3. Rose believes that her mother enriches her children’s lives and broadens their horizons.
  4. Rose advises people to have a holiday together so that they can find out whether they’ll get along and not fall out all the time.
  5. Multigenerational living suits Rose and her husband because they’re laid-back and they don’t lose their temper and shout.

Pag. 173

Es. 4

  • 3 ✔

Es. 5

  1. F
  2. T
  3. F
  4. F
  5. F
  6. T

Es. 6

  1. It’s considered to be a living example of eternal love.
  2. Shah Jahan was walking down the street.
  3. Shah Jahan told his father that he’d met the girl he was going to marry.
  4. It means ‘Jewel of the Palace’ and he called her that because she was his favourite wife.
  5. She died while she was giving birth.
  6. It lasted for two years.

Es. 7

  1. symbolism
  2. intensity
  3. fantasist
  4. nervousness
  5. historian

Pag. 174

Es. 1

Answers in any order:

  1. I, the
  2. I’m, a, who, is
  3. I’ll, be, my
  4. I’m, my
  5. I’ve, got, that, I, my, the

Es. 2

  1. highly motivated school leaver seeking seasonal employment
  2. experience dealing with (all) phone enquiries
  3. serving food and drinks to customers for last 3 years
  4. Technical School diploma completed in June
  5. outstanding interpersonal skills developed through experience in stewarding

Es. 3

  1. Personal information
  2. Job applied for
  3. Personal statement
  4. Work experience
  5. Education and training
  6. Personal skills
  7. Job-related skills
  8. Referencess

Es. 4

  • a outgoing student seeking part-time employment
  • b checking customers in and out
  • c dealing with phone bookings
  • d resolving customer enquiries
  • e completing artistic diploma
  • f effective telephone manner acquired through experience as hotel receptionist

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answer:

  • Personal information: Jude Piras, 54 Strada Statale 225, 07029 Tempio Pausania OT, Italy; 078621098765, [email protected];
  • Job apllied for: Architect;
  • Personal Statement: Creative graduate seeking full-time employment.
  • WORK EXPERIENCE September 2015- Present: Studio di Architettura Trave Olbia, Italy; Email: [email protected]
    • - maintaining project files
    • - preparing presentations
    • - building models
  • Education and training: Completed degree in architecture university of Milan;
  • Personal skills, Mother tongue: Italian;
  • Other languages: English;
  • Job-Related skills: Excellent communication skills and extensive experience of 3D-modelling gained through internship with architect’s firm.
  • References: Mr Walter Trave, Senior Architect, Studio di Architettura Trave, Olbia Prof Ermenegilda Vicendi Facoltà di Architettura, Milan.

Pag. 175

Es. 1

  1. dated
  2. owing to
  3. got along
  4. promised to take
  5. Consequently
  6. in order to
  7. had broken up
  8. bring up
  9. had warned me not to go
  10. on account of
  11. (had) told me (that) it was
  12. As a result
  13. so
  14. changed my mind
  15. offered to show
  16. keep quiet
  17. regretted agreeing

Es. 2

  1. admitted
  2. wanted
  3. said
  4. would be
  5. so
  6. was there for
  7. such a
  8. so
  9. bang on
  10. told
  11. had argued
  12. so
  13. would drift apart/were going to drift apart
  14. act/acted
  15. look/looked
  16. so
  17. refused
  18. to believe
  19. such an
  20. get along
  21. drives me mad
  22. losing my temper
  23. such a

Es. 3

  • A Hi Tony! Do you get along with the students in your new class?
  • B I haven’t got to know all my classmates yet, but I think we connect. My desk mate Matt and I hit it off immediately/ right away. I think we have a lot in common.
  • A Great! I admit that I’m not so lucky.
  • B Oh no! Is Dan driving you mad?
  • A Yes, he is. Yesterday I lost my temper and I had to apologise for shouting.
  • B Have you drifted apart because of that?
  • A For the moment we’ve made up.
  • B Poor Dan! I don’t know how he can put up with you!

Es. 4

It was such a shame when Max broke up with my sister Anna. He told her that it was because she took him for granted. People had warned Anna that it would happen, but she’d refused to believe them. She was so upset that she tried to talk things over with Max. She apologised for being selfish and begged him to change his mind. Since Max is such a decisive person, he wouldn’t listen to her.

Pag. 178-182

Es. F1

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. C
  5. D
  6. B
  7. D
  8. A
    Es. F2
  9. can/may/might
  10. there
  11. who/that
  12. as
  13. are
  14. have
  15. long
  16. to
    Es. F3
  17. careless
  18. stranger
  19. observers
  20. commercial
  21. advertise
  22. preferences
  23. unconcerned
  24. privacy
    Es. F4
  25. has taken up
  26. warned Alex not to
  27. unless you have read/unless you’ve read
  28. worried about losing
  29. alternative correct answers:
    • hadn’t finished when
    • hadn’t ended when
    • hadn’t finished before
    • hadn’t ended before
  30. can’t have taken
    Es. F5
  31. B
  32. C
  33. C
  34. D
  35. A
  36. A
    Es. F6
  37. D
  38. F
  39. A
  40. G
  41. C
  42. E
    Es. F7
  43. B
  44. D
  45. C
  46. A
  47. B
  48. B
  49. A
  50. D
  51. C
  52. A

Pag. 183

Es. F8

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
It’s usually good to be free to do whatever you want to do. However, I think we should make big life decisions when we are mature. This is the most important reason why I believe that 16 isn’t a good age to leave home or get married, but there are others. Most teenagers aren’t used to having responsibility. Most 16-year-olds would probably struggle if they had to manage their own home. Also, they couldn’t pay the rent and other bills themselves. Many 16-year-olds are quite sensible, but they don’t know much about the practicalities of money or housework. They also aren’t experienced enough to make the decision to get married. When you are 16 you have probably only had one or two girlfriends or boyfriends, so it’s impossible to know at that age if you have found the right partner. However, there might be a few cases where it is a good idea for a 16-year-old to leave home. For example, it is better for a teenager to be separated from his or her family if there are serious problems in the family such as violence or drug use.

Es. F9

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

2

6th April; Dear Alex, Thanks for your letter. It was good to hear from you. Of course I’ll help you with your homework. In Italy, the most popular sport is football. Cycling is popular too, and rugby is becoming more popular because Italy competes in the Six Nations league. Winter sports like skiing are popular in the mountains, and lots of people do water sports around the coast. A lot of people like to watch Gran Prix motorcycle racing or Formula One racing on TV. I play rugby every weekend for a local team. We aren’t very good, but we’re enthusiastic! I love watching rugby on TV, especially Six Nations matches, and I like watching big athletics events too. However, I can’t stand football! I’m an exception in a country which is football-mad, but I think that football has stopped being a sport and is now just a business. I like doing sport because it keeps me fit and active, and it’s a good way to let out any stress or frustration. I hope that helps! Best wishes Paolo

3

Yourstyle is one of my favourite websites. It’s basically a website where young people all over the world can buy and sell clothes. First of all, you can see what clothes are fashionable in other countries. Then, if you like the styles, you can buy the clothes and have something really unique in your wardrobe. The website is definitely designed for teenagers, but as some of the clothes are quite expensive, I’d say that the target market is probably around the ages 16-21. The site’s design is really amazing, with some incredible graphics, photographs and videos. The only drawback is that the site isn’t particularly easy to use if you aren’t used to it. It’s quite hard to navigate, and a few sections of the site are ‘buried’ and hard to find. However, I would definitely recommend the site to other people my age who are interested in fashion. It’s a fun way to see what’s in fashion in other parts of the world, and you can use it to buy clothes at great prices if you know where to look.

4

When Gemma came down for breakfast, there was a letter for her on the table. She picked it up curiously, and then she opened it quickly. She couldn’t believe what she was reading. Her drama group had been chosen to perform a play at the Edinburgh Festival in August! Two months later Gemma and the rest of the group were on the overnight train from London to Edinburgh. Although the journey lasted over six hours, they were too excited to get much sleep. Early the next morning they found themselves on the crowded streets of Edinburgh. They got a taxi to the bed and breakfast where they would be staying for three weeks. The next day the group found the small church hall where their play was going to be performed, and they got busy with their scenery, costumes and lighting. Three weeks later it was all over. The group were at Edinburgh station again, saying goodbye to new friends and exchanging phone numbers, but this time there was an extra item in their luggage to take home to London - the trophy for the Best Youth Performance at the festival!

5

Elizabeth Bennett is the main character in Pride and Prejudice. We see most of the story from her point of view. For most of the book, Elizabeth acts as a critic of her society’s obsession with money and social position. Elizabeth laughs at her mother’s obsession with finding rich husbands for her daughters, and she thinks her two youngest sisters are superficial and silly. Through Elizabeth’s eyes we see Darcy as arrogant and rude, and Wickham as charming and good-natured. However, if Darcy is the ‘pride’ in the title of the book, Elizabeth is the ‘prejudice’. Elizabeth has got very strong views and opinions, but as the story progresses, she begins to realise that a lot of her opinions are wrong. Through the story of Charlotte Lucas and Mr Collins, Elizabeth realises that, for some women, obsession with marriage and money is not a joke. She also learns that her opinions of Darcy and Wickham are completely wrong, and she understands that she should not have formed opinions of them based on first impressions and gossip. Elizabeth develops through the book as she becomes aware of her own faults.

Pag. 184-185

Es. F10

  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. C
  5. A
  6. A
  7. B
  8. B
    Es. F11
  9. computer programmer
  10. (well) educated
  11. mental illness
  12. flying machine
  13. engineer
  14. instructions
  15. holes in cards
  16. compose music
  17. Second World War/second world war/2nd World War/ 2nd world war
  18. science, technology, engineering
    Es. F12
  19. F
  20. C
  21. G
  22. A
  23. D
    Es. F13
  24. C
  25. B
  26. C
  27. B
  28. A
  29. A
  30. B

Pag. 186-187

Es. F14

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  • A interviews B
    • School:
      • A Where is your school?
      • B It’s in a suburb to the north of Rome.
    • Friends:
      • A How often do you meet your friends?
      • B We usually meet every weekend. We don’t often meet after school because we’re too busy!
    • Town:
      • A Can you describe your home town for me?
      • B Yes. It’s a medium-sized industrial town. It’s quite modern, but there are a few historic buildings in the centre.
    • Free time:
      • A What do you like doing in your free time?
      • B I like reading, watching films and drawing cartoons.
    • Transportation:
      • A How do you travel to school?
      • B I usually get the bus, but sometimes my dad takes me by car.
    • Pets:
      • A Have you got any pets?
      • B Yes, I have. I’ve got a cat and some fish.
    • Best friend:
      • A Who’s your best friend?
      • B It’s Gina, the girl who sits next to me in my class.
  • B interviews A
    • School:
      • B What subject do you like best at school?
      • A I like English best, because I like communicating with other people.
    • Friends:
      • B How long have you known your best friend?
      • A I’ve known her since we were at elementary school, so about 10 years.
    • Town:
      • B Is there much for young people to do in your home town?
      • A It isn’t bad. There’s a sports centre, a cinema and a big shopping centre.
    • Free time:
      • B Do you ever do sport in your free time?
      • A Yes, I do. I play tennis in the summer and I go skiing in the winter.
    • Transportation:
      • B Do you ever ride a bike?
      • A No, I don’t. I haven’t got a bike!
    • Pets:
      • B What would be your ideal pet?
      • A I’d love to have a horse. I’d like to learn to ride.
    • Best friend:
      • B How did you meet your best friend?
      • A We met on the football team.

Es. F15

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Student A These photos show people watching films, but they’re doing it in different ways. Photograph 1 shows some people on a sofa at home. I think they’re a family, and it’s during the day - not in the evening - so maybe they’re watching a film at the weekend. Photograph 2 shows people at the cinema. The room is dark but you can see the light from the screen, so the film has already started. They’re all looking at the screen. The advantage of watching a film at home is that it’s cheaper and you can pause the film if you want to. You can watch it with a group of friends and it isn’t a problem if you talk to each other or make noise. The disadvantage is that the screen is small and you don’t get much atmosphere. The advantage of going to the cinema is that you see the film as soon as it comes out, and the sound and picture are of much better quality. The disadvantage is that it can cost quite a lot, and there are fixed timetables, so you can’t see the film whenever you want. Student B I don’t go to the cinema very often, really. I prefer to watch films at home. I suppose that I go to the cinema about four times a year - that’s all. I like comedies, especially romantic ones. Student B Both of the photographs show people having a holiday. Photograph 3 shows a resort in some tropical place. There’s a big hotel near the beach and people are relaxing around a swimming pool. It looks like it’s a hot country. They’re probably sunbathing, reading and listening to music. It looks like quite a lazy holiday! Maybe it’s the type of holiday where all the activities and excursions are arranged for you. Photograph 4 shows people hiking outdoors. It looks like they are in the mountains somewhere, and it looks like hard work. They’re enjoying doing something healthy outdoors, they’re looking at the scenery and I expect that they’re feeling a sense of adventure too. Student A I’d prefer the adventurous holiday. I enjoy sport and fitness and I would hate to spend my holiday lying next to a pool like that! If I go to a new place, I like to explore it.

Es. F16

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  • A So, what do you think is the best way for the school to spend ten thousand pounds?
  • B I’m not sure. What do you think about spending it on books?
  • A Well, books are always useful, but we’ve got quite a good library already. I’m not sure that’s the best use for it.
  • B You might be right. What about building a new garden next to the school?
  • A I quite like that idea. We haven’t got a decent outdoor space at our school. I think that it would be good to have somewhere for students to sit outdoors and talk quietly.
  • B I agree with you. The school doesn’t look very nice from the outside. A garden would improve it. What about improving the inside of the school with some new furniture, or painting the walls?
  • A I don’t know. It’s difficult to decide what furniture we should buy. You could get new desks and chairs for a few of the classrooms, but not for all of them, and that wouldn’t be fair. In any case, I don’t think the school really needs decorating at the moment. It looks OK.
  • B I see what you mean. So maybe some new computer equipment would be a good idea.
  • A I think it would. If we bought new computer equipment for the IT room, then everyone could benefit from it, not just a few people. So finally, what do you think about spending the money on a party for everybody?
  • B Well, it’s a nice idea, but I think it’s a bit of a waste of so much money!
  • A Yes, I agree. Everyone would enjoy the party for a few hours - then the money would all be gone!
  • B So do you think that computer equipment is the best idea?
  • A Yes, computer equipment is a good idea, or a garden. Do you agree?
  • B Yes, I think those would be the best uses of the money.

Es. F17

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  • Examiner: ho should pay for school books – parents, students or schools? What do you think, A?
  • A I think that schools should pay for books, not parents. The government should give every school some money for books, in my opinion.
  • Examiner: What do you think, B?
  • B I agree with A. I don’t think it’s fair for our parents to have to pay so much money for books.
  • Examiner: So B, what sort of computer equipment should schools have?
  • B I think that there should be a laptop or a tablet for every student in the school. That doesn’t actually happen in many schools yet, but I think it’s necessary these days.
  • Examiner: A, is computer equipment more useful than books these days?
  • A I think that it probably is. You can put books onto computers these days, so I don’t think that we’ll be using paper books for much longer.
  • Examiner: Do you agree, B?
  • B No, I don’t really agree with that. I think people still like to hold and use real books. I don’t think that computers will replace books completely.
  • Examiner: A, do you think it’s important for schools to have nice buildings and classroom furniture?
  • A Yes, I think it’s quite important. If you have a nice learning environment then you are more motivated to learn. You need to feel proud of your school, and it’s difficult to do that if the building and the furniture are in bad condition.
  • Examiner: B, how important is it to have an attractive outdoor space at school?
  • B I think it’s important. It’s good to get outside during break times, and it’s nice to have somewhere to relax. It would also give a good impression to people who go past the school.
  • Examiner: And finally, both of you - should schools spend any money on entertaining their students?
  • A Well, I think that it’s OK for schools to spend money on, maybe, a Christmas party, or a party at the end of the year for the school leavers, but any more than that is probably a waste of money.
  • B I agree, but I think it’s also nice if a school can sometimes reward students for their effort, for example if they get good exam results. It doesn’t have to be expensive. They could buy some nice food and drink, or a take the students on a small trip somewhere.

Pag. 188

Es. 1

  1. Rising sea levels
  2. beach erosion
  3. hurricanes and tsunamis

Es. 2

  1. F
  2. C
  3. G
  4. E
  5. A
  6. D
  7. B

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. The music of Barbados interests me the most because I’m interested in world music and music festivals.
  2. The benefits are that Barbados has absorbed aspects of British culture and sport, but the disadvantages are that Britain colonised the island and used slave labour there.
  3. Barbados has created an organisation to investigate and monitor environmental danger. It has also created two marine parks.
  4. I know about Jamaica. It’s famous for its beaches, for reggae music and Bob Marley, and for the athlete Usain Bolt.
  5. In Italy every year there is a free music festival in Rome on the first of May. It takes place in a big open space outside the church of San Giovanni in Laterano. There is non-stop music all day long!

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Many places in Italy are in danger because of climate change, but Venice is probably the most famous example. Its location has always made it fragile, and rising sea levels now put it at great risk. Venice is located on Italy’s east coast, in the middle of the Adriatic sea. This means it is exposed to the effects of the tides. For this reason Venice has always had problems with flooding, but they usually only became serious when the weather was bad, as in 1966. Now that the sea level has risen everywhere, it’s a constant problem. Politicians and engineers decided that they needed to build a structure to protect the city. People didn’t want to block it from the sea, so the engineers designed a kind of underwater dam called MOSE that can come up for protection only when needed. Construction of the dam began in 2003. Today MOSE has almost been completed, but experts aren’t sure if it works! Let’s hope so, because Venice will need more protection in the future.

page.189

Es. 1

The water vapour from planes’ condensation trails (or contrails) is the most dangerous.

Es. 2

Possible answers:

  1. Aeroplanes use fuel derived from petrol, just like cars do.
  2. Burning fossil fuels puts carbon dioxide into the air.
  3. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere.
  4. Planes cause 2-3% of all human carbon dioxide emissions.
  5. The condensation from planes stays in the Earth’s atmosphere.

Es. 3

  • b

Es. 4

  1. Green Solutions
  2. air travel/flying
  3. aviation
  4. (bio)fuel(s)
  5. ice
  6. ISSR(s)
  7. fly less
  8. local

page.190

Es. 1

  1. the Facebook campaign during the 2010 US elections
  2. the Occupy (Wall Street) demonstration of 2011
  3. An online petition in 2010 forced the US government to remove the ban on people with HIV/AIDS entering the US.
  4. WikiLeaks
  5. BringBackOurGirls

Es. 2

  1. spread
  2. activism/views
  3. demonstrations/marches
  4. petitions
  5. superficial/ineffective
  6. public
  7. turnout
  8. policy

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. Donald Trump uses Twitter a lot to give his opinions about issues that affect the US. I think it’s appropriate because it’s the modern way to reach people.
  2. I’ve often seen social media posts about racism and equal rights. Sometimes I share them, but usually I don’t do anything.
  3. I think that these actions do count as political activism, because you are sharing a political message and encouraging people to think about it.
  4. The advantages of traditional activism are that you get results more quickly, it is more visible and more likely to attract media publicity. The advantages of digital activism are that it is easy and that large numbers of people will see your message. Taking strike action is a traditional form of activism that can’t be done in a digital way, but online petitions are much more effective and gather more signatures than paper petitions.
  5. I don’t believe that hacking is ever justifiable as a method of political activism because it can cause a lot of damage.

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
In Italy people use all the types of online activism mentioned in the article. They discuss politics and try to influence each other on social media, they sign online petitions and they organise rallies. I think there are some political hackers, too, but I don’t know a lot about them. I think Italy’s Cinque Stelle party is its most well-known case of online activism. This party really formed as a result of the leader Beppe Grillo’s blog. He decided to use the Meetup network to organise his political activities. The great turnout he received on Meetup convinced him that he had enough support to create a party. His party has also had online elections. When Cinque Stelle changed into a real political party, it started to have some problems. I think this is because online activism is good for organising, but you need direct political action to really change things.

page.191

Es. 1

  1. rights
  2. conditions
  3. profession
  4. money
  5. members
  6. political

Es. 2

  1. The labour movement began at the start of the 19th century.
  2. A lot of people were moving away from the country to jobs in cities.
  3. The labour movement established the two-day weekend and eight-hour working day. It also helped to abolish child labour.
  4. The labour movement became political by supporting particular candidates. Later, political parties were created to promote their interests.

Es. 3

  1. F. The Tolpuddle Martyrs were sentenced to exile in Australia.
  2. F. The Chartists fought for the right to vote. The Tolpuddle Martyrs defended their rights as workers.
  3. F. The Chartists wanted all men to be able to vote.
  4. T.
  5. F. The Labour Party formed a coalition with the Liberal Party in 1924.

Es. 4

  1. a labour organisation
  2. their organisation was secret
  3. political activists
  4. more people
  5. Kier Hardie

Pag. 192

Es. 1

  1. military
  2. research
  3. communications
  4. rocket science
  5. entertainment

Es. 2

  1. a
  2. d
  3. c
  4. c
  5. d

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. Clarke’s contribution to communications satellites allow us to use mobile phones and the Internet every day.
  2. I think Clarke was interested in everything and saw lots of applications for his knowledge.
  3. I think the world needs clean energy and cheaper medicine.
  4. Today, space exploration focuses on sending people to Mars and using resources from other planets.

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Leonardo da Vinci was definitely ahead of his time. He was born in Vinci in Tuscany in 1452. He first studied as a sculptor and painter. He then moved to Milan to work for the powerful Sforza family as an engineer and architect. When France invaded Milan in 1499, Leonardo returned to Tuscany. He also spent time in Rome and, at the end of his life he went to France.He died in France in 1519. Leonardo was remarkable because he was interested in science as much as he was in the arts. Among other subjects, he studied geology, anatomy, optics and aeronautics. Leonardo’s biggest and most famous achievements as an artist are his portrait, La Gioconda, and his mural, The Last Supper, which he painted at a monastery during his time in Milan. His achievements as an engineer and a designer can be seen in his famous notebooks, where we can find drawings of a bicycle, a plane, a helicopter and parachute, centuries before they were actually invented. Leonardo was futuristic because he had the imagination to envisage these things, and the skill to design them in detail, before anyone else had even thought of them.

page.193

Es.1

  1. energy
  2. magnetic field
  3. vibrate
  4. travel
  5. metres per second
  6. less energy

Es. 2

  1. radio
  2. microwave
  3. infrared
  4. visible
  5. ultraviolet
  6. X ray
  7. gamma

Es. 3

We can perceive the heat and light that some electromagnetic waves produce. Radiation can cause burns in humans and can cause cancer cells to develop.

Es. 4

Answers correct in any order:

  1. radio, microwave
  2. ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma
  3. radio, infrared
  4. infrared, microwave

page.194

Es. 1

  1. He studied engineering physics and he worked at a furniture company.
  2. 3D printing was invented in the 1980s, starting in 1983.
  3. Polymers and plastics have traditionally been used in 3D printing.
  4. Car manufacturers, aeronautics companies and medical equipment companies first used 3D printers.
  5. Hull was able to imagine that the 3D printer could probably use different materials beyond polymers and plastics.

Es. 2 - 3

  1. f
  2. e
  3. a
  4. d
  5. c

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. I think people had to create prototypes by hand by carving them out of some material like metal or plastic, in the same way you would create a sculpture.
  2. 3D printing is quick, easy and relatively cheap. It can be done on site rather than by a special company.
  3. You need to be creative, you need a good visual sense, you need to understand how things are constructed, and you need to be able to use 3D design software.
  4. Manufacturing industries and medicine can probably benefit the most from 3D printing, but it can be useful in almost any field - engineering, fashion and art, too.
  5. I can imagine doctors and dentists printing customised body parts for their patients in the future.

Es. 5

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
We normally think of the radio as an invention, but it’s a kind of technology, too. Guglielmo Marconi was the first man to try to use radio waves for long-distance wireless communication. Before his invention, people had to use wires to send messages over long distances. Morse Code and telegrams existed as means of communication before Marconi’s invention, but they required cables to be laid across land and in the oceans for messages to be transmitted. Guglielmo Marconi was born in Bologna, Italy, in 1874. He began to experiment with sending signals by radio waves in 1895, and a year later he took a machine that he had invented to England, where the Post Office began to use it to send messages over relatively short distances. In 1899 Marconi established wireless communication between France and the south coast of England, and in 1901 he succeeded in using his invention to transmit wireless signals across the Atlantic from Cornwall to Newfoundland. Marconi’s invention has been used globally since that time for communication, navigation, entertainment and military use. Marconi also predicted the invention of radar as a natural development of his invention. We continue to use Marconi’s technology today in radio, television, telephones and remote controls.

page.195

Es. 1

  1. polymer = a chemical compound whose molecules have the structure of a chain, with identical units linked together in a repeated pattern
  2. rubber, silk, cellulose, DNA
  3. plastic
  4. Bakelite, nylon, polystyrene, polyester
  5. thermoplastic = able to be melted; thermoset = unable to be melted or re-formed

Es. 2

  1. T
  2. T
  3. F. Most polymers contain carbon.
  4. F. Polymers are insulators and do not allow the transfer of heat.
  5. F. Most man-made polymers are made from fossil fuels, but now there are some ecological alternatives.

Es. 3

  1. landfill = disposing of waste by burying it
  2. incineration = burning of waste
  3. recycling = processing waste material so it can be reused
  4. composting = allowing waste to decompose, naturally or with the help of chemicals.

Es. 4

  1. g
  2. c
  3. b
  4. a
  5. d
  6. e
  7. h
  8. f

page.196

Es. 1

  1. Bookworm
  2. 1993
  3. Yatman Cabinet
  4. 1858
  5. Tulip Chair
  6. 1956
  7. (the) Great Bed of Ware
  8. 1590

Es. 2

  1. A
  2. C
  3. D
  4. C
  5. A
  6. B
  7. D

Es. 3

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. I’d like to have some of the Tulip Chairs in my home because I think they still look modern today.
  2. Yes, I chose the desk in my room. I wanted it to be big with a glass top.
  3. I would pay a lot of money for a nice piece of furniture, but not just because someone famous had designed it.
  4. I like the bookcase in our living room because it is asymmetrical, and I like our big old dining room table.
  5. I think good design is most important for cars and clothes. I don’t think it’s as important for mobiles, computers or books because they need to be practical.

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
This is a photo of a sofa from 1938. It was designed by the Spanish surrealist artist Salvador Dali and it’s one of the most iconic pieces of furniture of the 20th century. The sofa is bright red and it is in the shape of a pair of lips. It’s called the Mae West sofa, because Dali used the mouth of Mae West, a famous film star, as his inspiration. Dali designed and made this sofa for his British friend Edward James. James was a millionaire who agreed to pay Dali a month’s salary in return for anything that Dali made. James was collecting surrealist furniture for his mansion in England. This is a photo of a chair from the 1970s. It isn’t exactly a chair, but you can sit in it. It’s actually a big leather bag full of beans, and when you sit down, it changes shape. I hate these chairs because I always fall out of them!

Pag. 197

Es. 1

tradition ✔ mediaeval ✔ collaboration ✔ socialism ✔ beauty ✔

Es. 2

  1. in the 19th/nineteenth
  2. Britain
  3. skills
  4. factories
  5. rural communities
  6. the past
  7. the future

Es. 3

  1. T
  2. F. Morris continued to study and learn new techniques all his life.
  3. T
  4. F. Morris’s first company didn’t fail.
  5. T

Es. 4

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:

  1. When he was a student, Morris changed direction from a career as a priest to a career as an artist and designer.
  2. Morris lived in rural locations in houses with hand-made furnishings. He practised ancient crafts and he lived and worked with a large group of collaborators to try to make the world a better place.
  3. I think Morris considered himself to be an artist because he made beautiful things and he felt that artists needed to be skilled craftsmen. I suspect there were some artists who thought that Morris was simply a craftsman because he focused his attention on making useful objects instead of pure art, but other artists probably considered him an artist too.
  4. I think he set up companies because he was trying to propose a non-industrial model of production and because he wanted people to be able to appreciate quality craftsmanship. He probably also wanted to create good jobs.
  5. Morris is now most famous as a designer of textiles and wallpapers.

Pag. 198

Es. 1

  1. No, she doesn’t, because she begins with ‘Dear Sir/Madam’ (and ends with ‘Yours faithfully’).
  2. She doesn’t know who she’s writing to, so she uses a formal tone.

Es. 2

  1. There is an introduction followed by details. Tanya’s ideas are organised into paragraphs.
  2. The beginning of a new paragraph signals a change in topic.
  3. The beginning of a new paragraph is indicated by starting a new line.
  4. The first sentence introduces the new topic of the paragraph. The subsequent sentences give more details about the topic.
  5. Each paragraph begins with the general idea and ends with a reference back to the idea, to conclude the paragraph.

Es. 3

  1. subject
  2. without
  3. begins
  4. without
  5. full stop

Es. 4

  • Paragraph 1: 1
  • Paragraph 2: 3
  • Paragraph 3: 6
  • Paragraph 4: 9
  • Paragraph 5: 12

Es. 5

All alternatives listed are correct:

  • 2 I travelled from London to Manchester on Wednesday 10th August. I was most disappointed with the facilities on board. I travelled from London to Manchester on Wednesday 10th August; I was most disappointed with the facilities on board. I travelled from London to Manchester on Wednesday 10th August, and I was most disappointed with the facilities on board.
  • 4 The coach was full, and the temperature outside was 25ºC.
  • 7 Our departure time was 11.30a.m., so I was hoping to buy some sandwiches for lunch.
  • 10 I asked the driver to stop at a service station. He refused. I asked the driver to stop at a service station; he refused. I asked the driver to stop at a service station, but he refused.
  • 13 I hope you will consider giving me a refund before I report your company to a consumer care organisation.

Writing guide:write in paragraphs

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Dear Sir/Madam, I am writing to complain about the train service your company runs from Venice to Rome. I travelled on this route on September 24th last year, and I was far from satisfied with the service. The first problem was that there was no buffet car. The train I had booked was scheduled to take six hours, so I had planned to have lunch on the train. There was nothing on my ticket to say that there was no food, so I had no idea that I needed to take sandwiches. I had to wait until the train arrived in Rome at 16.40 to have lunch. On top of the fact that there was no buffet car, the carriage I was sitting in was extremely dirty. There was so much dirt on the windows that I could not see out of them, and there was a lot of litter on the floor. The carriage had obviously not been cleaned for days, perhaps weeks. I am afraid to say that this was one of the worst train journeys I have ever been on. I hope that you will take note of my comments and take measures to improve this service as soon as possible. I look forward to hearing from you shortly. Best wishes, Trudy Stevens

page.199

Es. 1

The text is a review. You could read it in a newspaper, a magazine or on the Internet.

Es. 2

  1. The topic sentences are normally the first sentences in each paragraph.
  2. A topic sentence introduces the topic of the paragraph and sometimes gives some indication of the type of information the paragraph will contain.
  3. The other sentences in the paragraph provide examples, details, causes, results, advantages, disadvantages, conditions or reasons.
  4. Neither the introduction nor the conclusion has got a topic sentence because they have got a different function and structure.

Es. 3

  1. semi-colon
  2. comma

Es. 4

- * b ** b

Es. 5

All alternatives listed are correct:

  1. At the Olive Hotel there are only seven dishes in all; there are no options for vegetarians. At the Olive Hotel there are only seven dishes in all, and there are no options for vegetarians.
  2. There’s a Caesar salad and a sausage pizza; you can’t order them without meat! There’s a Caesar salad and a sausage pizza, but you can’t order them without meat!
  3. We were all extremely hungry, so we hoped the food would arrive quickly. We were all extremely hungry, and we hoped the food would arrive quickly.
  4. Perhaps they haven’t got enough help in the kitchen, or maybe a cook was ill that day.
  5. The menu is limited; the service is terribly slow. The menu is limited, and the service is terribly slow.

Writing guide: write topic sentences

Task F Writing, Part 2:
Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
It isn’t easy to know where to have lunch when you’re sightseeing in an unfamiliar city. You can wander around for hours looking for the right restaurant or you can stop at the first place you find. Last weekend in Florence, my friends and I tried the second option, and we found ourselves in Trattoria Marco. At first glance, the restaurant appears to be in chaos. It’s quite small, and customers have to share tables. There’s no menu; instead there are signs on the walls showing the food. However, you soon start to enjoy the informal atmosphere; everyone is friendly from the waitress who takes your order to the other customers on your table. The moment your food arrives, you realise that Trattoria Marco was the right choice. The pasta is piled high on the plate, the meat is cooked to perfection and the salad couldn’t be fresher. Not only is the food delicious, it’s also very cheap; none of us paid more than ten euros for our meal. I would recommend Trattoria Marco to anyone in Florence looking for a quick, cheap, but tasty meal. It may not be the most fashionable restaurant I’ve ever eaten in, but it’s certainly one of the best.

page.200

Es. 1

The purpose of the article is to expose an unfair situation. You might read it in a newspaper, a magazine or on a website.

Es. 2

  1. The order in the introduction is:
    1. catches the reader’s interest
    2. connects the element of interest to the topic
    3. summarises the topic
  2. an opinion and a recommendation

Es. 3

  1. in addition
  2. however
  3. consequently

Es. 4

  1. d
  2. e

Es. 5

Answers correct in any order:

  1. As a result, Consequently, For this reason, Therefore
  2. In addition, Moreover
  3. As a result, Consequently, For this reason, Therefore
  4. However, Nevertheless
  5. In addition, Moreover

Writing guide: write introductions and conclusions

Task Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
It isn’t fair! Do you know what materials are in your smartphone, tablets and other electronic devices? One of them is coltan, a mineral found in large quantities in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The problem is that much of the coltan used in our smartphones is mined illegally. Coltan is mined in a process similar to how gold was mined in California during the 1800s. Working conditions in coltan mines are terrible. The mines are generally run by armed gangs, who often force the workers to mine the coltan at gunpoint. Moreover, there are many very young children working in the mines instead of going to school. In addition, the Congolese people see none of the profits from the coltan. The money is usually taken by the gangs to finance armed conflict in the area. Consequently, there are often civil wars, which have resulted in the deaths of millions of people. Meanwhile, the citizens of the DRC are among the poorest in the world. It doesn’t seem right to me that smartphone manufacturers allow this situation to exist. The companies make billions of dollars every year, some of which should be invested in trying to solve the problem.

page.201

Es. 1

The text is a summary. It might be useful because it’s faster to read than a complete article and it can help you remember the main ideas in a text.

Es. 2

  1. the main ideas
  2. your own words
  3. topic
  4. only important
  5. doesn’t need

Es. 3

  1. three
  2. two

Es. 4

  1. C
  2. F
  3. G
  4. J
  5. L

Es. 5

  1. war, violence or persecution.
  2. hot, dusty track
  3. food, utensils(,) and clothes.
  4. crowded, fragile boat
  5. family, friends(,) and strangers

Writing guide: write a summary

Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
The book extract on Pag. 24 tells the story of the American Civil Rights movement. By the 1950s, slavery had been banned in the USA, but African-Americans did not have the same rights as white Americans. In 1955, civil rights activists took advantage of the arrest of Rosa Parks to organise a bus boycott, which ended with the desegregation of the buses in Montgomery, Alabama. One of the leaders of the boycott was Martin Luther King Jr., who formed the SCLC civil rights organisation and led non-violent protests across America. Americans became more aware of the civil rights cause when photos appeared in the press showing white Americans abusing African-Americans. A number of important events happened during the 1960s, including King’s delivery of his ‘I have a dream’ speech, King’s winning of the Nobel Peace Prize, and a new Voting Rights Act. In 1968, King was assassinated, which caused many activists to join the more violent Black Panther Party for a short time. Today, African-Americans have got more rights than they did in the 1950s, but they are still not treated exactly the same as white Americans.

page.202

Es. 1

Brad needs to write an essay. He’s going to write about teens, perhaps about their problems.

Es. 2

  1. notation
  2. right
  3. two
  4. levels
  5. relationship

Es. 3

  1. Familiar surroundings
  2. Danger
  3. Professional care home
  4. Separation from family
  5. Contact with family
  6. Different lifestyles

Es. 4

  1. examples
  2. advantage
  3. disadvantage
  4. causes
  5. results

Writing guide: write an outline

Task

  • Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
    Older people have got a better quality of life than younger people
  • I. Introduction
  • II. Money
    • A. Own house
      1. 1. security
      2. 2. freedom to decorate
    • B. Own car
      1. 1. mobility
      2. 2. comfort
  • III. Time
    • A. Little or no time spent at work
      1. 1. flexible lifestyle
      2. 2. little stress
    • B. Leisure time
      1. 1. holidays
      2. 2. hobbies
  • IV. Mental state
    • A. More relaxed
      1. 1. family relationships
      2. 2. old friendships
    • B. Fewer worries
      1. 1. finding a job
      2. 2. finding a partner
  • V. Conclusion

page.203

Es. 1

There are five paragraphs. They correspond to the first level of the outline with Roman numerals.

Es. 2

  1. He begins his essay with an introduction.
  2. He begins each paragraph with a topic sentence.
  3. Yes, he does.
  4. The expressions connect ideas and show how they’re related.
  5. He ends the essay with a conclusion.

Es. 3

All alternatives listed are correct:

  1. similarly/likewise
  2. similarly/likewise
  3. as long as
  4. such as/for example
  5. such as/for example
  6. previously/finally
  7. previously/finally

For comparison, we use similarly and likewise the same way, but we use whereas between two things we want to contrast. For conditions, we use as long as, on condition that and providing (that) in the same way. For examples, we use for example at the beginning of a sentence but we use such as within a sentence. For sequence, we use previously, finally and subsequently before or after the verb they describe, but we also use finally at the beginning of a sentence.

Es. 4

All alternatives listed are correct:

  • A easiest/most convenient
  • B dangerous/risky/unsafe
  • C family
  • D love/want/care about
  • E sacrifice/give up/lose/want

Es. 5

Multiple answers correct in any order:

  1. similarly/likewise
  2. such as
  3. as long as
  4. such as
  5. as long as
  6. Subsequently
  7. previously
  8. Finally
  9. Subsequently

Writing guide: write from an outline

Task; Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Life for young people can be hard, especially for teenagers like me. Sometimes I wish I were older, because I think I would have a better quality of life. First of all, older people generally have more money and they probably own a house. As a result, they are able to enjoy the stability of having a home base and the freedom of decorating it as they wish. They are also likely to have their own car, so they can travel quickly and comfortably wherever they please. In addition to having more money, older people usually have more time. They probably don’t work much if at all, and this allows them to do what they want many days, and they certainly don’t have to deal with a lot of stress. With all this free time, they can go on holiday often or dedicate time to their hobbies. In general, older people seem happier than younger people, due to the fact they have fewer obligations. They don’t have to study like we do, and once they retire, they don’t have to work, either. For the most part, older people have fewer worries, too. They don’t need to stress about finding a job, and most of them have a partner. Personally, I ‘m not afraid of getting older because I think I’ll have a better quality of life. For now, however, I I’d better get used to being young!

page.204

Es. 1

Gail has written a story. Maybe she wrote it for school or a competition.

Es. 2

Gail has met all the criteria in the checklist.

Es. 3

  1. c
  2. d
  3. a
  4. b
  5. b

Es. 4

  1. -

Es. 5

  1. Last summer I was on holiday with some friends in the north of Spain.
  2. We wanted to go to Finisterre, so we caught a bus there from Santiago.
  3. There were only two buses a day from Santiago to Finisterre, and we had taken the morning bus.
  4. While we were waiting, we saw the bus arrive.
  5. When all the passengers had got off, we spoke to the driver.

Es. 6

  1. c
  2. b
  3. d
  4. a
  5. c
  • Task Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
    Last Tuesday I was having a shower before going to school and listening to music on my phone. I’d left it on top of the bar of the shower curtain. Unfortunately, when I opened the curtain to get my towel, my phone fell into the bath, which still had some water in it. I screamed and grabbed my phone, but of course it had stopped working. Then I ran into the kitchen to get some rice. I’d heard that if your phone falls in water and you leave it in a bowl of rice, the rice helps the phone to dry out. I didn’t think for a moment it would work, but it was worth a try. I left the bowl of rice with my phone in it in my room and finished getting ready for school. I was late that day because of what had happened. When school finished, I rushed home to see if my phone was working. Imagine my disappointment when I tried to turn it on and the screen remained blank. That evening, I was in a bad mood, and my mum eventually asked me, ‘What’s wrong?’ I didn’t want to tell her about my phone, so I said I was tired and went to bed. The next morning, I got up and decided to try my phone one more time. I took it out of the bowl, pressed the power button, and… it worked! I couldn’t believe my luck!

page.205

Es. 1

Fiona is presenting both sides of the issue of consumption. Her sources are: Steve Howard, The Intelligence Group, Richard Girling, some experts that she doesn’t identify, Lizz Sturl.

Es. 2

  1. b
  2. a
  3. c
  4. a
  5. b

Es. 3

  1. single
  2. before
  3. is

Es. 4

Possible answers:

  1. Eli Pariser’s book The Filter Bubble: What the Internet is Hiding from You (2011)
  2. might make/might be making
  3. the politician Angela Merkel thinks
  4. ‘Young people care about the news.’
  5. Renato Peral
  6. ‘Although filter bubbles are annoying, they’re easy to escape.’

Writing guide: avoid plagiarism

Task;Students’ own answers. Possible answers:
Some people are debating over the kind of images users should be allowed to post on social media. One of the complaints is about graphic photographs showing animal cruelty and abuse. According to Lena Philips’ book Shock Tactics: How to Make an Impact (2016), dramatic pictures have a far greater effect on people than a written description. Tony Hopkins, head of an animal rights organisation, agrees. He says that real-life photos are ‘the best way to raise awareness about this issue’. The hope is that they will inspire people to stand up and do something. Nevertheless, some social media users find these pictures upsetting and object to them. Tracey Jones says the photos ‘make me feel guilty for something I didn’t do,’ while other users say that they don’t want that kind of negativity in their lives. Some parents worry that their children might see the images by accident. For the most part, social networks are trying to stay out of the argument. However, one spokesperson said that users could easily control what they look at. ‘All they need to do,’ he said, ‘is hide the image and unfollow or block the person or group that sent it to them.’

page.206

Es. 1

She wrote it because she’s applying for a job. Her CV is one page long.

Es. 2

  1. A CV should include your name, address, phone number and email address.
  2. It should explain why you are applying for the job and why you think you are suitable for it.
  3. You should include only relevant work experience.
  4. You should adapt the job applied for, your personal statement, your work experience, and your job-related skills.
  5. The people who examine CVs have very little time, so they often ignore a CV that’s very long. Many people also consider focussing on relevant information to be an important skill.

Es. 3

Possible answers:

  1. a b c d e f g h i
  2. c d e g
  3. c d e g
  4. c g
  5. c d e

Es. 4

  1. Personal information
  2. Job applied for
  3. Personal statement
  4. Work experience
  5. Education and training
  6. Personal skills
  7. Job-related skills
  8. References

Es. 5

  • a Energetic student seeking employment at weekends
  • b meeting and greeting all customers
  • c selling tickets
  • d responsible for online reservations
  • e Thorough knowledge of safety and first aid procedures acquired during employment in go karting business

Writing guide: write a CV

  • Personal information: Name;Address;Contact number; [email protected]
  • Job applied for: Camp monitor
  • Personal statement: Energetic student who loves kids seeking summer work
  • Work experience (september 2015-Present): Benedetti Sports Centre; e-mail:[email protected];
    • tennis coaching
    • organising matches
    • running tournaments
  • Education and training (present): Completing high school diploma at [name of school]
  • Personal skills (mother tongue): Italian
  • Other language: English
  • Job-related skills: Experience with children gained from work as a tennis coach
  • References: Mr T Leone; Manager; Benedetti Sports Centre.


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